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Author: Festus Olubukunmi Ajibuwa
Title:
Data And Information Security In Modern Day Businesses (Thesis)
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Table of Contents

1. Title page .......................................................................................... 1
2. Acknowledgement ............................................................................... 2
3. Table of Contents ................................................................................. 3
4. Abstract ............................................................................................ 4
5. Chapter 1 ­ General Introduction ............................................................... 5
6. Data Classification .................................................................................6
7. Information Asset .................................................................................. 8
8
Chapter 2 ­ Categorizing Security .............................................................. 10
9. History of Information Security ..................................................................12
10. Chapter 3 ­ Principles of Information Security ............................................... 13
11. Crimes and Instructions on Automated Information Systems .............................. 15
12. Chapter 4 ­ Risk Management .................................................................. 19
13. Security Classification of Information .......................................................... 21
14. Chapter 5 ­ Analysis (Information Security as a process) .................................... 25
15. Laws and Regulations governing Information Security ....................................... 27
16. Sources of Standards for Information Security ................................................. 29
17. Types of Data Theft ................................................................................ 33
18. Security Administration ............................................................................ 36
19. Management Systems for Employee Turnover ..................................................39
20. Reporting Data Security Breaches ................................................................. 41
21. Chapter 6 ­ Conclusion ............................................................................. 44
22. Information Security Plan for Organizations ..................................................... 54
23. Information Security Policy for Universities .................................................... 56
24. References ............................................................................................ 62
25. Appendices ......................................................................................... 63
26. Glossary of Terms ................................................................................... 65

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Abstract
Information security is the process of protecting data from unauthorized access, use, disclosure,
destruction, modification, or disruption. The terms information security, computer security and
information assurance are frequently used interchangeably. These fields are interrelated and share the
common goals of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information; however,
there are some subtle differences between them. These differences lie primarily in the approach to the
subject, the methodologies used, and the areas of concentration. Information security is concerned
with the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data regardless of the form the data may take:
electronic, print, or other forms.

This Thesis reveals a comprehensive analysis of Data and Information Security in modern-day
businesses. It covers the Meaning and Background history of Data Security, Categories of Data
Security, Security Concepts, Security Standards, Principles of Information Security, The negative
impact of breaching organization`s security, Data Protection and Risk Management; Laws and
Regulations governing Information Security.

It equally covers some verse areas of Information Security as a process, Information Security at
Management level, Sources of Standards for Information Security, Protecting Privacy in Information
Systems, Data Theft, Database Security, Managing Systems for Employee Turn-over, Laws and
Regulations governing Information Security, Sources of Standards for Information Security, Types of
Data Theft, Security Administration, Reporting Data Security Breaches and the Responsibilities of
everyone that has to do with Data and Information Security. Detailed analyses of these sub-headings
are well arranged and simplified within the write-up.


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Chapter 1

General Introduction

Data / Information
In the area of Information Security, data (and the individual elements that comprise the data) is
processed, formatted and re-presented, so that it gains meaning and thereby becomes information.
Information Security is concerned with the protection and safeguard of that information which, in its
various forms can be identified as Business Assets or Information Assets.
The terms data and information can be used somewhat interchangeably; but, as a general rule,
information always comprises data, but data is not always information.
Information security is the ongoing process of exercising due care and due diligence to protect
information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction,
modification, or disruption. The never ending process of information security involves ongoing
training, assessment, protection, monitoring & detection, incident response & repair, documentation,
and review.

In 1989, Carnegie Mellon University established the Information Networking Institute, the United
State's first research and education center devoted to information networking. The academic
disciplines of computer security, information security and information assurance emerged along with
numerous professional organizations during the later years of the 20th century and early years of the
21st century.

Entry into the field can be accomplished through self-study, college or university schooling in the
field or through week long focused training camps. Many colleges, universities and training
companies offer many of their programs on- line. The GIAC-GSEC and Security+ certifications are
both respected entry level security certifications. The Certified Information Systems Security
Professional (CISSP) is a well respected mid- to senior-level information security certification.
The profession of information security has seen an increased demand for security professionals who
are experienced in network security auditing, penetration testing, and digital forensics investigation.

Definitions of Data Security
Security according to Collins English Dictionary is the state of being secure. Precautions taken to
ensure against theft, espionage, etc; Data security is very important, data that contain personal
information has to be protected under the data protection act, and data that could be useful for
commercial competitors has to be safeguarded from theft.

The Higher National Computing (page 226) declares that data security as an essential aspect of
computing especially with database system to ensure privacy of sensitive and personal information.
Data security is also paramount in complying with legislation that protects users and third parties of
data.


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According to Terence Driscoll and Bob Dolden Security in information management terms means the
protection of data from accident or deliberate threats which might cause unauthorized modification,
disclosure or destruction of data, and the protection of information system from the degradation or non
availability of services.

Security refers to technical issues related to the computer system, psychological and behavioral factors
in the organization and its employees, and protection against the unpredictable occurrences of the
natural world.

Kelvin Townsend (editor, Information Security Bulletin) mentioned on page 10 of the IMIS IT
Security journal that people frequently asked him What is the best security system to install? And
his answer is The best security system is the one that allows you to fulfill your security policy. He
further said that A formal security policy is the key to a secure system.
Security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In the general sense, security is a
concept similar to safety. The nuance between the two is an added emphasis on being protected from
dangers that originate from outside. Individuals or actions that encroach upon the condition of
protection are responsible for the breach of security.
The word "security" in general usage is synonymous with "safety," but as a technical term "security"
means that something not only is secure but that it has been secured. In telecommunications, the term
security has the following meanings:
(a)
A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that
ensures a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences.
(b)
With respect to classified matter, the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having
access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security.
(c)
Measures taken by a military unit, an activity or installation to protect itself against all acts
designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness. (Sources: from Federal Standard 1037C and
adapted from the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms)
Security has to be compared and contrasted with other related concepts: Safety, continuity,
reliability. The key difference between security and reliability is that security must take into
account the actions of active malicious agents attempting to cause destruction.
Data Classification
Data Classification is the conscious decision to assign a level of sensitivity to data as it is being
created, amended, enhanced, stored, or transmitted. The classification of the data should then
determine the extent to which the data needs to be controlled / secured and is also indicative of
its value in terms of Business Assets.
The classification of data and documents is essential if you are to differentiate between that
which is a little (if any) value, and that which is highly sensitive and confidential. When data is
stored, whether received, created or amended, it should always be classified into an appropriate
sensitivity level. For many organizations, a simple 5 scale grade will suffice as follows:-

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Document / Data Classification
Description
Highly sensitive internal documents e.g.
pending mergers or acquisitions; investment
strategies; plans or designs; that could
seriously damage the organization if such
Top Secret
information were lost or made public.
Information classified as Top Secret has very
restricted distribution and must be protected at
all times. Security at this level is the highest
possible.
Information that, if made public or even shared
around the organization, could seriously
impede the organization`s operations and is
considered critical to its ongoing operations.
Information would include accounting
information, business plans, sensitive customer
Highly Confidential
information of banks, solicitors and
accountants etc., patient's medical records and
similar highly sensitive data. Such information
should not be copied or removed from the
organization`s operational control without
specific authority. Security at this level should
be very high.
Information of a proprietary nature;
procedures, operational work routines, project
plans, designs and specifications that define
Proprietary
the way in which the organization operates.
Such information is normally for proprietary
use to authorized personnel only. Security at
this level is high.
Information not approved for general
circulation outside the organization where its
loss would inconvenience the organization or
management but where disclosure is unlikely
Internal Use only
to result in financial loss or serious damage to
credibility. Examples would include, internal
memos, minutes of meetings, internal project
reports. Security at this level is controlled but
normal.
Information in the public domain; annual
Public Documents
reports, press statements etc.; which has been

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approved for public use. Security at this level
is minimal.


Information Asset
An Information Asset is a definable piece of information, stored in any manner which is
recognized as 'valuable' to the organization. The information which comprises an Information
Asset may be little more than a prospect name and address file; or it may be the plans for the
release of the latest in a range of products to compete with competitors.
Irrespective, the nature of the information assets themselves, they all have one or more of the
following characteristics:-
They are recognized to be of value to the organization.
They are not easily replaceable without cost, skill, time, resources or a combination.
They form a part of the organization`s corporate identity, without which, the organization
may be threatened.
Their Data Classification would normally be Proprietary, Highly Confidential or even
Top Secret.
It is the purpose of Information Security to identify the threats against, the risks and the
associated potential damage to, and the safeguarding of Information Assets.
Information Custodian
An Information Custodian is the person responsible for overseeing and implementing the
necessary safeguards to protect the information assets, at the level classified by the Information
Owner.
This could be the System Administrator, controlling access to a computer network; or a specific
application program or even a standard filing cabinet.
Information Owner
The person who creates, or initiates the creation or storage of the information, is the initial
owner. In an organization, possibly with divisions, departments and sections, the owner becomes
the unit itself with the person responsible, being the designated 'head' of that unit.
The Information owner is responsible for ensuring that:
An agreed classification hierarchy is agreed and that this is appropriate for the types of
information processed for that business / unit.

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Classify all information stored into the agreed types and create an inventory (listing) of
each type.
For each document or file within each of the classification categories, append its agreed
(confidentiality) classification. Its availability should be determined by the respective
classification.
Ensure that, for each classification type, the appropriate level of information security
safeguards are available e.g. the logon controls and access permissions applied by the
Information Custodian provide the required levels of confidentiality.
Periodically, check to ensure that information continues to be classified appropriately and
that the safeguards remain valid and operative.
Perceived security compared to real security
It is very often true that people's perception of security is not directly related to actual security.
For example, a fear of flying is much more common than a fear of driving; however, driving is
generally a much more dangerous form of transport.
Another side of this is a phenomenon called security theatre where ineffective security measures
such as screening of airline passengers based on static databases are introduced with little real
increase in security or even, according to the critics of one such measure - Computer Assisted
Passenger Prescreening System - with an actual decrease in real security.

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Chapter 2

Categorizing security
There is an immense literature on the analysis and categorization of security. Part of the reason
for this is that, in most security systems, the "weakest link in the chain" is the most important.
The situation is asymmetric since the defender must cover all points of attack while the attacker
can simply identify a single weak point upon which to concentrate their efforts.
Types of security
The following are some major types of securities:
international security
national security
physical security
home security
information security
network security
computing security
application security
financial security
human security
food security
airport security
shopping centre security
humanitarian Security
Security concepts
Certain concepts recur throughout different fields of security.
risk - a risk is a possible event which could cause a loss
threat - a threat is a method of triggering a risk event that is dangerous
countermeasure - a countermeasure is a way to stop a threat from triggering a risk event
defense in depth - never rely on one single security measure alone
assurance - assurance is the level of guarantee that a security system will behave as
expected

Information security
Information security is the process of protecting data from unauthorized access, use, disclosure,
destruction, modification, or disruption. The terms information security, computer security and
information assurance are frequently used interchangeably. These fields are interrelated and
share the common goals of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of
information; however, there are some subtle differences between them. These differences lie
primarily in the approach to the subject, the methodologies used, and the areas of concentration.
Information security is concerned with the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data
regardless of the form the data may take: electronic, print, or other forms.

Heads of state and military commanders have long understood the importance and necessity of
protecting information about their military capabilities, number of troops and troop movements.
Such information falling into the hands of the enemy could be disastrous. Governments, military,

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financial institutions, hospitals, and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential
information about their employees, customers, products, research, and financial status. Most of
this information is now collected, processed and stored on electronic computers and transmitted
across networks to other computers. Should confidential information about a businesses
customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor, such a breach of
security could lead to lost business, law suits or even bankruptcy of the business. Protecting
confidential information is a business requirement, and in many cases also an ethical and legal
requirement. For the individual, information security has a significant effect on Privacy, which is
viewed very differently in different cultures.
The field of information security has grown and evolved significantly in recent years. As a career
choice there are many ways of gaining entry into the field. It offers many areas for specialization
including Information Systems Auditing, Business Continuity Planning and Digital Forensics
Science, to name a few.
This article presents a general overview of information security and its core concepts.

IT Security standards
ISO/IEC 15443 A framework for IT security assurance (covering many methods, i.e.
TCSEC, Common Criteria, ISO/IEC 17799)
o
ISO/IEC 15443-1: Overview and framework
o
ISO/IEC 15443-2: Assurance methods
o
[ISO/IEC 15443-3: Analysis of assurance methods (expected in 2007)]
ISO/IEC 15408 refer also to Common Criteria
ISO/IEC 17799:2005 Code of practice for information security management refer also to
ISO/IEC 17799
refer also to TCSEC Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book)
Information security

Security is everyone`s responsibility. Security awareness poster. U.S. Department of
Commerce/Office of Security.

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A brief history of Information Security
This write-up describes the earliest roots and key developments of what is now known as
information security.
Since the early days of writing, heads of state and military commanders understood that it was
necessary to provide some mechanism to protect the confidentiality of written correspondence
and to have some means of detecting tampering. Persons desiring secure communications have
used wax seals and other sealing devices since the early days of writing to signify the
authenticity of documents, prevent tampering, and ensure confidentiality of correspondence.
Julius Caesar is credited with the invention of the Caesar cipher c50 B.C. to prevent his secret
messages from being read should a message fall into the wrong hands.
World War II brought about much advancement in information security and may mark the
beginning of information security as a professional field. WWII saw advancements in the
physical protection of information with barricades and armed guards controlling access into
information centers. It also saw the introduction of formalized classification of data based upon
the sensitivity of the information and who could have access to the information. During WWII
background checks were also conducted before granting clearance to classified information.
The end of the 20th century and early years of the 21st century saw rapid advancements in
telecommunications, computing hardware and software, and data encryption. The availability of
smaller, more powerful and less expensive computing equipment made electronic data
processing within the reach of small business and the home user. These computers quickly
became interconnected through a network generically called the Internet or World Wide Web.
The rapid growth and wide spread use of electronic data processing and electronic business
conducted through the Internet, along with numerous occurrences of international terrorism,
fueled the need for better methods of protecting these computers and the information they store,
process and transmit. The academic disciplines of computer security, information security and
information assurance emerged along with numerous professional organizations - all sharing the
common goals of insuring the security and reliability of information systems.

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Chapter 3

Basic principles of Information Security
Confidentiality, integrity, availability
For over twenty years information security has held that three key concepts form the core
principles of information security: confidentiality, integrity and availability. These are known as
the CIA Triad.
Confidentiality
It is virtually impossible to get a drivers license, rent an apartment, obtain medical care, or take
out a loan without disclosing a great deal of very personal information about ourselves, such as
our name, address, telephone number, date of birth, Social Security number, marital status,
number of children, mother's maiden name, income, place of employment, medical history, etc.
This is all very personal and private information, yet we are often required to provide such
information in order to transact business. We generally take it on faith that the person, business,
or institution to whom we disclose such personal information have taken measures to ensure that
our information will be protected from unauthorized discloser, either accidental or intentional,
and that our information will only be shared with other people, businesses or institutions who are
authorized to have access to the information and who have a genuine need to know the
information.

The CIA Triad.
Information that is considered to be confidential in nature must only be accessed, used, copied,
or disclosed by persons who have been authorized to access, use, copy, or disclose the
information, and then only when there is a genuine need to access, use, copy or disclose the
information. A breach of confidentiality occurs when information that is considered to be
confidential in nature has been, or may have been, accessed, used, copied, or disclosed to, or by,
someone who was not authorized to have access to the information.
For example: permitting someone to look over your shoulder at your computer screen while you
have confidential data displayed on it would be a breach of confidentiality if they were not
authorized to have the information. If a laptop computer, which contains employment and benefit

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information about 100,000 employees, is stolen from a car (or is sold on eBay) could result in a
breach of confidentiality because the information is now in the hands of someone who is not
authorized to have it. Giving out confidential information over the telephone is a breach of
confidentiality if the caller is not authorized to have the information.
Confidentiality is a requisite for maintaining the privacy of the people whose personal
information the organization holds.
Integrity
In information security, integrity means that data can not be created, changed, or deleted without
authorization. It also means that data stored in one part of a database system is in agreement with
other related data stored in another part of the database system (or another system). For example:
a loss of integrity can occur when a database system is not properly shut down before
maintenance is performed or the database server suddenly loses electrical power. A loss of
integrity occurs when an employee accidentally, or with malicious intent, deletes important data
files. A loss of integrity can occur if a computer virus is released onto the computer. A loss of
integrity can occur when an on-line shopper is able to change the price of the product they are
purchasing.

Availability
The concept of availability means that the information, the computing systems used to process
the information, and the security controls used to protect the information are all available and
functioning correctly when the information is needed. The opposite of availability is denial of
service (DOS)
In 2002, Mr. Donn Parker proposed an alternative model for the classic CIA triad that he called
the six atomic elements of information. His alternative model includes confidentiality,
possession or control, integrity, authenticity, availability, and utility. The merits of the Parkerian-
hexad are a subject of debate amongst security professionals.
Risk management
A comprehensive treatment of the topic of risk management is beyond the scope of this article.
We will however, provide a useful definition of risk management, outline a commonly used
process for risk management, and define some basic terminology.

Breaching Organizational Security
A number of organizational security breaches can occur; some of these are amplified by the use
of a database because of the integrated approach to data storage and retrieval. Some of these
breaches and security issues include:


Virus

Unauthorized access (hacking)

Industrial and/or individual sabotage

Accidents by users (incompetence)

And in his analysis of some of the threats and risks to data, he mentioned the following:

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Loss of access to your company data
Unproductive workforce
Viral infection
Theft of company secrets
Inadvertent law breaking

Security can be divided into a number of aspects:

(a)
Prevention
(b)
Detection
(c)
Deterrence
(d)
Recovery procedures
(e)
Correction procedures
(f)
Threat avoidance.


Crimes and instructions on automated information systems

Computer crime encompasses any unauthorized use of a computer system including software
piracy or theft of system resources for personal use including computer processing time and
network access time. It is also a crime to take any action intended to alter data programs or to
damage or destroy data, software, or equipment. All these crimes are committed through
intrusion, the forced and unauthorized entry into a system.

Computer crime through intrusion can occur in one of two ways, which is either by hackers
break into a system to destroy the data or the network, or software viruses inserted into a system
to destroy programs and data.

Software Piracy
Piracy is the act of making of illegal copies of copyright information, and software piracy is the
making of illegal copies of software. This is one of the most serious issues in IT today because it
is so widespread that it is responsible for an enormous loss of revenue to software originators.

Protections against Software Piracy
Software Copyright Protection: This is the legal protection of original works against
unauthorized use, including duplication, provided the owner visibly displays a notice on the
product. This method has been used for many yeas for the protection of books, magazines, music
and other commercial original works, but today it also applies to computer software, database
etc.

Copyright Protection: This is a software protection scheme that defeats attempts to copy a
program or makes the copied software unreliable.

Software Site Licensing: This is an agreement under which a software purchaser pays a fee to the
manufacturer to make a specified number of copies of a particular program.



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Hackers
Hackers are people that attack/gain access into system/networks illegally to see what is there and
mostly to destroy data for their profits, to be malicious or just because it is there. Hackers usually
gain access to a system through a network, but sometimes they physically enter a computer or
network facility.

Business people should always keep their intellectual property from the eyes of their competitors
or hackers, because much of the data is very difficult and expensive to generate. Therefore if care
is not taken loss or damages can put the individual out of business because networks are attack
by morons. Consider what will happen when an enemy/hacker gains access to your network.

Network Security Measures Against Hackers
There are various ways and methods of protecting networks from dangers or hackers, and it is
always very wise for not to rely on a single protection method and deploy them in layers
designed so that an attacker has to defeat multiple defense mechanisms to perform a successful
attack.
Below are some security measures that should be adhered to by all users of a network system:
Physical Access Control is the most basic level of security, but it is frequently forgotten. The
most trivial way of stealing data or disrupting IT operations is to physically take or destroy
pieces of equipment. Instead of spending more effort and resources securing your data against
threats coming from the network, make sure to control physical access to critical servers and
network infrastructure.

This involves the employing of security guards to monitor and guard the IT room/office so that
nobody will have the direct access of stealing or damaging data or equipment and theft will not
take place. Therefore the workplace should have tight security measure to prevent un-authorized
people from invading the place. A padlock may be your most effective network security
investment.
User authentication mechanisms are designed to uniquely identify users, assign their
corresponding access rights to information, and track their activities. Workers should know that
the security of the organization must not be compromised. User`s ID and passwords are the
primary means of safeguarding organizational assets.
Authentication is usually performed by challenging the user to provide access keys (passwords,
biometric information, tokens, ID cards, etc) and checking their access privileges against a
RADIUS, LDAP or SLDAP database.

Data Encryption is the process of encoding data through a series of mathematical functions to
prevent unauthorized parties from viewing or modifying it. It has the objective to protect the
confidentiality and integrity of the information, even when the encrypted data is in transit over
unsecured media such as the Internet.
Data encryption works so that only the recipient can decode the data using the decoding
algorithm that is not necessarily secret and an encryption key that is secret.
Network Packet Filtering is performed at network level and can be performed at routers and
gateways by analyzing headers of IP packets and allowing or denying forwarding based on
source or destination address, protocol type, TCP port number, packet length, etc. This is useful
to prevent access even before there is an attempt to authenticate or look at system data.

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Firewalls are devices that perform packet filtering but look beyond the Internet Protocol headers
and also analyze the packet payload for patterns to deny/allow user.
The use of Passwords on data or the entire computer system can act as a protection from
unauthorized people. A password has to be keyed in to gain access to the data or computer
system and this is made up of characters, numbers, or in an alphanumeric form and the password
is issued only to people authorized to use the system and this should be changed frequently to
keep the data secure.
It is not advisable to use the name of the company or the owner`s name or his/her family name as
a password because many people might know this and others might try this to gain access to the
data.

Restricted Access (privileges) to different data areas can be set up so that only authorized users
can gain access to certain data. In this case all the users may be able to access the company`s
files, but access to certain data will be restricted to certain members, and this is done through the
use of additional passwords or by setting up the system so that only certain terminals can gain
access to certain data.

Back Ups: This is the act of duplicating files so that incase of any accident such as loss of
original file, there will be copies/duplicates of the original, and if possible this duplicate will not
be kept in the computer system alone or at workplaces but there should be more secured places
to keep it.

Computer Viruses
A virus is defined as a small computer program that is capable of copying itself from one
computer to another, thus emulating a biological virus that infects new hosts. Viruses are almost
always written with malicious intent, and may inflict damage ranging from temporarily
corrupting the screen display or slowing down the computer operation, through deleting certain
files, up to erasing the entire hard disk content.

In certain cases intrusions occurs by way of software. According to Wikipedia, A computer
virus is a hidden program that alters, without the user`s knowledge the way the computer
operates or modifies the data and programs stored on the computer. It is said to be a virus
because it reproduces itself, passing from one computer to another, or it can also enter a
computer when a file to which it attaches itself is being transferred to a remote computer through
a communication network and an infected disk or diskette will continue to spread the virus each
time it is used. Other viruses take control of the operating system and stop it from functioning.

The most dangerous viruses do not act immediately after infection but often lie dormant for a
long period until it is triggered by some event; such as reaching a particular date (Friday the 13th
is popular) or running a certain program.

Writing a virus is technically demanding, so they are always written for the most popular brands
of computer, where there exists a reasonable chance that they will replicate. Historically they
have been mainly confined to IBM ­ compatibles Personal Computers and the Apple Macintosh.


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The first virus was probably the 1987 Lehigh virus, followed by the more widely infectious
stoned, Jerusalem and Cascade viruses, all of which infected PCs running MS-DOS. These early
viruses disseminated themselves via a floppy disk, copying themselves into the Boot Sector of
the hard disk of any computer that was booted from that floppy. Their spread was exacerbated by
the people taking floppy disks to work to play games, and exchanging pirated software on
floppies. Once software became too big for floppies, this class of virus almost died out, as they
can not infect the read-only Compact Disk ­ Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). Now almost all
viruses are disseminated via the Internet, either by the down-loading of files that they have
infected, or hidden in an attachment to an Email.

There are three main categories of virus:
(a) File viruses
(b) Script or Macro viruses
(c) Boot Sector viruses.

Protections against viruses

Scanning: This is a method by which virus-checking programs such as Norton Anti-virus
searches disks and memory for known viruses.

Interception: This is a virus checking program that monitors processing, seeking to spot virus
program in action.

Digital signature encryption: These are published programs that are encoded with mathematical
key, making it difficult for virus to attack data or programs.

Health hazards & safety precautions associated with computer workplaces
Having a proper workplace and ensuring that workers enjoy the benefits a good and accident-free
workplace is a good motivation for employees. It is very clear that a healthy and happy worker is
more productive to any business. The key to designing a proper workplace for the knowledge
worker is flexibility.

Computer operators/users are also covered by the health and safety act 1974. Therefore to
comply with this act, employers are required to make sure that their places of work are safe
environments. Issues related to the use of computers include the regular checking of all electrical
equipment to make sure that it is safe to use.

It is also the duty of employees to undertake safe working practices and they are required to:

(a) Report any hazards relating to computers immediately and this could include trailing
computer leads, loose wiring etc.
(b) Avoid lifting heavy equipments unless the individual is trained to do so.
(c) Take breaks at regular intervals.
(d) Maintain good posture when sitting at terminals.



18
 
Chapter 4

Risk Management
The CISA Review Manual 2006 provides the following definition of risk management: "Risk
management is the process of identifying vulnerabilities and threats to the information resources
used by an organization in achieving business objectives, and deciding what countermeasures, if
any, to take in reducing risk to an acceptable level, based on the value of the information
resource to the organization."
There are two things in this definition that may need some clarification. First, the process of risk
management is an ongoing iterative process. It must be repeated indefinitely. The business
environment is constantly changing and new threats and vulnerabilities emerge every day.
Second, the choice of countermeasures (controls) used to manage risks must strike a balance
between productivity, cost, effectiveness of the countermeasure, and the value of the
informational asset being protected.
Risk is the likelihood that something bad will happen that causes harm to an informational asset
(or the loss of the asset). Vulnerability is a weakness that could be used to endanger or cause
harm to an informational asset. A threat is anything (man made or act of nature) that has the
potential to cause harm.
The likelihood that a threat will use a vulnerability to cause harm creates a risk. When a threat
does use a vulnerability to inflict harm, it has an impact. In the context of information security,
the impact is a loss of availability, integrity, and confidentiality, and possibly other losses (lost
income, loss of life, loss of real property). It should be pointed out that it is not possible to
identify all risks, nor is it possible to eliminate all risk. The remaining risk is called residual risk.
A risk assessment is carried out by a team of people who have knowledge of specific areas of the
business. Membership of the team may vary over time as different parts of the business are
assessed. The assessment may use a subjective qualitative analysis based on informed opinion, or
where reliable dollar figures and historical information is available, the analysis may use
quantitative analysis.
The ISO-17799:2005 Code of practice for information security management recommends the
following be examined during a risk assessment: security policy, organization of information
security, asset management, human resources security, physical and environmental security,
communications and operations management, access control, information systems acquisition,
development and maintenance, information security incident management, business continuity
management, and regulatory compliance.

In broad terms the risk management process consists of:
(a) Identification of assets and estimating their value. Include: people, buildings, hardware,
software, data (electronic, print, and other), and supplies.

(b) Conduct a threat assessment. Include: Acts of nature, acts of war, accidents, and malicious
acts originating from inside or outside the organization.


19
 
(c) Conduct a vulnerability assessment, and for each vulnerability, calculate the probability that
it will be exploited. Evaluate policies, procedures, standards, training, physical security, quality
control, technical security.

(d) Calculate the impact that each threat would have on each asset. Use qualitative analysis or
quantitative analysis.
Identify, select and implement appropriate controls. Provide a proportional response. Consider
productivity, cost effectiveness, and value of the asset.
Evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures. Ensure the controls provide the required cost
effective protection without discernable loss of productivity.

For any given risk, Executive Management can choose to accept the risk based upon the relative
low value of the asset, the relative low frequency of occurrence, and the relative low impact on
the business. Or, leadership may choose to mitigate the risk by selecting and implementing
appropriate control measures to reduce the risk. In some cases, the risk can be transferred to
another business by buying insurance or out-sourcing to another business. The reality of some
risks may be disputed. In such cases leadership may choose to deny the risk. This is itself a
potential risk.

Three types of controls
When Management chooses to mitigate a risk, they will do so by implementing one or more of
three different types of controls.

1. Administrative controls are comprised of approved written policies, procedures, standards and
guidelines. Administrative controls form the framework for running the business and managing
people. They inform people on how the business is to be run and how day to day operations are
to be conducted. Laws and regulations created by government bodies are also a type of
administrative control because they inform the business. Some industry sectors have policies,
procedures, standards and guidelines that must be followed - the Payment Card Industry (PCI)
Data Security Standard required by Visa and Master Card is such an example. Other examples of
administrative controls include the corporate security policy, password policy, hiring policies,
and disciplinary policies.
Administrative controls form the basis for the selection and implementation of logical and
physical controls. Logical and physical controls are manifestations of administrative controls.
Administrative controls are of paramount importance.

2. Logical controls (also called technical controls) use software and data to monitor and control
access to information and computing systems. For example: passwords, network and host based
firewalls, network intrusion detection systems, access control lists, and data encryption are
logical controls.
An important logical control that is frequently overlooked is the principle of least privilege. The
principle of least privilege requires that an individual, program or system process is not granted
any more access privileges than are necessary to perform the task. A blatant example of the
failure to adhere to the principle of least privilege is logging into Windows as user Administrator
to read Email and surf the Web. Violations of this principle can also occur when an individual
collects additional access privileges over time. This happens when employees' job duties change,

20
 
or they are promoted to a new position, or they transfer to another department. The access
privileges required by their new duties are frequently added onto their already existing access
privileges which may no longer be necessary or appropriate.

3. Physical controls monitor and control the environment of the work place and computing
facilities. They also monitor and control access to and from such facilities. For example: doors,
locks, heating and air conditioning, smoke and fire alarms, fire suppression systems, cameras,
barricades, fencing, security guards, cable locks, etc. Separating the network and work place into
functional areas are also physical controls.
An important physical control that is frequently overlooked is the separation of duties.
Separation of duties ensures that an individual can not complete a critical task by himself. For
example: an employee who submits a request for reimbursement should not also be able to
authorize payment or print the check. An applications programmer should not also be the server
administrator or the database administrator - these roles and responsibilities must be separated
from one another.

Security classification for information
An important aspect of information security and risk management is recognizing the value of
information and defining appropriate procedures and protection requirements for the
information. Not all information is equal and so not all information requires the same degree of
protection. This requires information to be assigned a security classification.
The first step in information classification is to identify a member of senior management as the
owner of the particular information to be classified. Next, develop a classification policy. The
policy should describe the different classification labels, define the criteria for information to be
assigned a particular label, and list the required security controls for each classification.
Some factors that influence which classification information should be assigned include how
much value that information has to the organization, how old the information is and whether or
not the information has become obsolete. Laws and other regulatory requirements are also
important considerations when classifying information.
Common information security classification labels used by the business sector are: public,
sensitive, private, confidential. Common information security classification labels used by
government are: unclassified, sensitive but unclassified, confidential, secret, top secret.
All employees in the organization, as well as business partners, must be trained on the
classification schema and understand the required security controls and handling procedures for
each classification. The classification a particular information asset has been assigned should be
reviewed periodically to ensure the classification is still appropriate for the information and to
ensure the security controls required by the classification are in place.[3]

Access control
Access to protected information must be restricted to people who are authorized to access the
information. The computer programs, and in many cases the computers that process the
information, must also be authorized. This requires that mechanisms be in place to control the
access to protected information. The sophistication of the access control mechanisms should be
in parity with the value of the information being protected - the more sensitive or valuable the
information the stronger the control mechanisms need to be. The foundation on which access
control mechanisms are built start with identification and authentication.

21
 
Identification is an assertion of who someone is or what something is. If a person makes the
statement "Hello, my name is Festus Ajibuwa." Such a person is making a claim of who he is.
However, his claim may or may not be true. Before Festus Ajibuwa can be granted access to
protected information it will be necessary to verify that the person claiming to be Festus Ajibuwa
is really Festus Ajibuwa.

Authentication is the act of verifying a claim of identity. When Festus Ajibuwa goes into a bank
to make a withdrawal, he tells the bank teller he is Festus Ajibuwa (a claim of identity). The
bank teller asks to see a photo ID, so he hands the teller his driver`s license. The bank teller
checks the license to make sure it has Festus Ajibuwa printed on it and compares the photograph
on the license against the person claiming to be Festus Ajibuwa. If the photo and name match the
person, then the teller has authenticated that Festus Ajibuwa is who he claimed to be.
There are three different types of information that can be used for authentication: something you
know, something you have, or something you are. Examples of something you know include
such things as a PIN number, a password, or your mother`s maiden name. Examples of
something you have include a driver`s license or a magnetic swipe card. Something you are
refers to biometrics. Examples of biometrics include palm prints, finger prints, voice prints and
retina (eye) scans. Strong authentication requires providing information from two of the three
different types of authentication information. For example, something you know plus something
you have. This is called two-factor authentication.
On computer systems in use today, the Username is the most common form of identification and
the Password is the most common form of authentication. Usernames and passwords have served
their purpose but in our modern world they are no longer adequate. Usernames and passwords
are slowly being replaced with more sophisticated authentication mechanisms.
After a person, program or computer has successfully been identified and authenticated then it
must be determined what informational resources they are permitted to access and what actions
they will be allowed to perform (run, view, create, delete, or change). This is called
authorization.
Authorization to access information and other computing services begins with administrative
policies and procedures. The polices prescribe what information and computing services can be
accessed, by whom, and under what conditions. The access control mechanisms are then
configured to enforce these policies.
Different computing systems are equipped with different kinds of access control mechanisms;
some may offer a choice of different access control mechanisms. The access control mechanism
a system offers will be based upon one of three approaches to access control or it may be derived
from a combination of the three approaches.
The non-discretionary approach consolidates all access control under a centralized
administration. The access to information and other resources is usually based on the individuals
function (role) in the organization or the tasks the individual must perform. The discretionary
approach gives the creator or owner of the information resource the ability to control access to
those resources. In the Mandatory access control approach, access is granted or denied bases
upon the security classification assigned to the information resource.

22
 
Examples of common access control mechanisms in use today include Role-based access control
available in many advanced Database Management Systems, simple file permissions provided in
the UNIX and Windows operating systems, Group Policy Objects provided in Windows network
systems, Kerberos, RADIUS, TACACS, and the simple access lists used in many firewalls and
routers.
To be effective, policies and other security controls must be enforceable and upheld. Effective
policies ensure that people are held accountable for their actions. All failed and successful
authentication attempts must be logged, and all access to information must leave some type of
audit trail.
Cryptography
Information security uses cryptography to transform usable information into a form that renders
it unusable by anyone other than an authorized user; this process is called encryption.
Information that has been encrypted (rendered unusable) can be transformed back into its
original usable form by an authorized user, who possesses the cryptographic key, through the
process of decryption. Cryptography is used in information security to protect information from
unauthorized or accidental discloser while the information is in transit (either electronically or
physically) and while information is in storage.
Cryptography provides information security with other useful applications as well including
improved authentication methods, message digests, digital signatures, non-repudiation, and
encrypted network communications. Older less secure application such as telnet and ftp are
slowly being replaced with more secure applications such as SSH that use encrypted network
communications. Wireless communications can be encrypted using the WPA protocol. Software
applications such as GNUPG or PGP can be used to encrypt data files and Email.
Cryptography can introduce security problems when it is not implemented correctly.
Cryptographic solutions need to be implemented using industry accepted solutions that have
undergone rigorous peer review by independent experts in cryptography. The length and strength
of the encryption key is also an important consideration. A key that is weak or too short will
produce weak encryption. The keys used for encryption and decryption must be protected with
the same degree of rigor as any other confidential information. They must be protected from
unauthorized disclosure and destruction and they must be available when needed. PKI solutions
address many of the problems that surround key management.
Defense in depth



23
 
Information security must protect information through out the life span of the information, from
the initial creation of the information on through to the final disposal of the information. The
information must be protected while in motion and while at rest. During its life time, information
may pass through many different information processing systems and through many different
parts of information processing systems. There are many different ways the information and
information systems can be threatened. To fully protect the information during its lifetime, each
component of the information processing system must have its own protection mechanisms. The
building up, layering on and overlapping of security measures is called defense in depth. The
strength of any system is no greater than its weakest link. Using a defense in depth strategy,
should one defensive measure fail there are other defensive measures in place that continue to
provide protection.
Recall the earlier discussion about administrative controls, logical controls, and physical
controls. The three types of controls can be used to form the bases upon which to build a defense
in depth strategy. With this approach, defense in depth can be conceptualized as three distinct
layers or planes laid one on top of the other. Additional insight into defense in depth can be
gained by thinking of it as forming the layers of an onion, with data at the core of the onion,
people as the outer layer of the onion, and network security, host based security and applications
security forming the inner layers of the onion. Both perspectives are equally valid and each
provides valuable insight into the implementation of a good defense in depth strategy.

24
 
Chapter 5 - Analysis

Information security as a process
The terms reasonable and prudent person, due care and due diligence have been used in the fields
of Finance, Securities, and Law for many years. In recent years these terms have found their way
into the fields of computing and information security. U.S.A. Federal Sentencing Guidelines now
make it possible to hold corporate officers liable for failing to exercise due care and due
diligence in the management of their information systems.
In the business world, stockholders, customers, business partners and governments have the
expectation that corporate officers will run the business in accordance with accepted business
practices and in compliance with laws and other regulatory requirements. This is often described
as the "reasonable and prudent person" rule. A prudent person takes due care to ensure that
everything necessary is done to operate the business by sound business principles and in a legal
ethical manner. A prudent person is also diligent (mindful, attentive, and ongoing) in their due
care of the business.
In the field of Information Security, Harris offers the following definitions of due care and due
diligence:
"Due care are steps that are taken to show that a company has taken responsibility for the
activities that take place within the corporation and has taken the necessary steps to help protect
the company, its resources, and employees." And, [Due diligence are the] "continual activities
that make sure the protection mechanisms are continually maintained and operational."
Attention should be made to two important points in these definitions. First, in due care, steps are
taken to show - this means that the steps can be verified, measured, or even produce tangible
artifacts. Second, in due diligence, there are continual activities - this means that people are
actually doing things to monitor and maintain the protection mechanisms, and these activities are
ongoing.
Change management
Change management is a formal process for directing and controlling alterations to the
information processing environment. This includes alterations to desktop computers, the
network, servers and software. The objectives of change management are to reduce the risks
posed by changes to the information processing environment and improve the stability and
reliability of the processing environment as changes are made. It is not the objective of change
management to prevent or hinder necessary changes from being implemented.
Any change to the information processing environment introduces an element of risk. Even
apparently simple changes can have unexpected effects. One of Managements many
responsibilities is the management of risk. Change management is a tool for managing the risks
introduced by changes to the information processing environment. Part of the change
management process ensures that changes are not implemented at inopportune times when they
may disrupt critical business processes or interfere with other changes being implemented.

25
 
Not every change needs to be managed. Some kinds of changes are a part of the everyday routine
of information processing and adhere to a predefined procedure, which reduces the overall level
of risk to the processing environment. Creating a new user account or deploying new desktop
computers are examples of changes that do not generally require change management. However,
relocating user file shares, or upgrading the Email server pose a much higher level of risk to the
processing environment and are not a normal everyday activity.
Change management is usually overseen by a Change Review Board comprised of
representatives from key business areas, security, networking, systems administrators, Database
administration, applications development, desktop support and the help desk. The tasks of the
Change Review Board can be facilitated with the use of automated work flow application. The
responsibility of the Change Review Board is to ensure the organizations documented change
management procedures are followed. The change management process is as follows:
Requested: Anyone can request a change. The person making the change request may or may not
be the same person that performs the analysis or implements the change. When a request for
change is received, it may undergo a preliminary review to determine if the requested change is
compatible with the organization`s business model and practices, and to determine the amount of
resources needed to implement the change.
Approved: Management runs the business and controls the allocation of resources therefore;
Management must approve requests for changes and assign a priority for every change.
Management might choose to reject a change request if the change is not compatible with the
business model, industry standards or best practices. Management might also choose to reject a
change request if the change requires more resources than can be allocated for the change.
Planned planning a change involves discovering the scope and impact of the proposed change;
analyzing the complexity of the change; allocation of resources and, developing, testing and
documenting an implementation plan.
Tested: Every change must be tested in a safe test environment, which closely reflects the actual
production environment, before the change is applied to the production environment.
Scheduled: Part of the change review board's responsibility is to assist in the scheduling of
changes by reviewing the proposed implementation date for potential conflicts with other
scheduled changes or critical business activities.
Communicated: Once a change has been scheduled it must be communicated. The
communication is to give others the opportunity to remind the change review board about other
changes or critical business activities that might have been overlooked when scheduling the
change. The communication also serves to make the Help Desk and users aware that a change is
about to occur. Another responsibility of the change review board is to ensure that scheduled
changes have been properly communicated to those who will be affected by the change or
otherwise have an interest in the change.

26
 
Implemented: At the appointed date and time, the changes must be implemented. Part of the
planning process was to develop an implementation plan, testing plan and, a back out plan. If the
implementation of the change should fail or, the post implementation testing fails or, other "drop
dead" criteria have been met, the back out plan should be implemented.
Documented: All changes must be documented. The documentation includes the initial request
for change, its approval, the priority assigned to it, the implementation, testing and back out
plans, the results of the change review board critique, the date/time the change was implemented,
who implemented it, and whether the change was implemented successfully, failed or postponed.
Post change review: The change review board should hold a post implementation review of
changes. It is particularly important to review failed and backed out changes. The review board
should try to understand the problems that were encountered, and look for areas for
improvement.
Change management procedures that are simple to follow and easy to use can greatly reduce the
overall risks created when changes are made to the information processing environment. Good
change management procedures improve the over all quality and success of changes as they are
implemented. This is accomplished through planning, peer review, documentation and
communication.
ISO/IEC 20000, Visible Ops and Information Technology Infrastructure Library all provide
valuable guidance on implementing an efficient and effective change management program.
Laws and regulations governing Information Security
Below is a partial listing of European, United Kingdom, Canadian and USA governmental laws
and regulations that have, or will have, a significant effect on data processing and information
security. Important industry sector regulations have also been included when they have a
significant impact on information security.
UK Data Protection Act 1998 makes new provisions for the regulation of the processing of
information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such
information. The European Union Data Protection Directive (EUDPD) requires that all EU
members must adopt national regulations to standardize the protection of data privacy for
citizens throughout the EU.
The Computer Misuse Act 1990 is an Act of the UK Parliament making computer crime (e.g.
hacking) a criminal offence. The Act has become a model upon which several other countries
including Canada and the Republic of Ireland, have drawn inspiration when subsequently
drafting their own information security laws.
EU Data Retention laws requires Internet service providers and phone companies to keep data on
every electronic message sent and phone call made for between six months and two years.

27
 
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232 g; 34 CFR Part 99)
is a USA Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. The law applies to
all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education.
Generally, schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible student in order to
release any information from a student's education record.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires the adoption of national
standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health
insurance plans, and employers. And, it requires health care providers, insurance providers and
employers to safeguard the security and privacy of health data.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999(GLBA), also know as the Financial Services Modernization
Act of 1999, protects the privacy and security of private financial information that financial
institutions collect, hold, and process.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). Section 404 of the act requires publicly traded companies to
assess the effectiveness of their internal controls for financial reporting in annual reports they
submit at the end of each fiscal year. Chief information officers are responsible for the security,
accuracy and the reliability of the systems that manage and report the financial data. The act also
requires publicly traded companies to engage independent auditors who must attest to, and report
on, the validity of their assessments.
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) establishes comprehensive
requirements for enhancing payment account data security. It was developed by the founding
payment brands of the PCI Security Standards Council, including American Express, Discover
Financial Services, JCB, MasterCard Worldwide and Visa International, to help facilitate the
broad adoption of consistent data security measures on a global basis. The PCI DSS is a
multifaceted security standard that includes requirements for security management, policies,
procedures, network architecture, software design and other critical protective measures.
State Security Breach Notification Laws (California and many others) require businesses,
nonprofits, and state institutions to notify consumers when unencrypted "personal information"
may have been compromised, lost, or stolen.
Personal Information Protection and Electronics Document Act (PIPEDA) An Act to support and
promote electronic commerce by protecting personal information that is collected, used or
disclosed in certain circumstances, by providing for the use of electronic means to communicate
or record information or transactions and by amending the Canada Evidence Act, the Statutory
Instruments Act and the Statute Revision Act.
Sources of standards for Information Security
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a consortium of national standards
institutes from 157 countries with a Central Secretariat in Geneva Switzerland that coordinates
the system. The ISO is the world's largest developer of standards. The ISO-15443: "Information
technology - Security techniques - A framework for IT security assurance", ISO-17799:
"Information technology - Security techniques - Code of practice for information security

28
 
management", ISO-20000: "Information technology - Service management", and ISO-27001:
"Information technology - Security techniques - Information security management systems" are
of particular interest to information security professionals.

The USA National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a non-regulatory federal
agency within the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration. The NIST
Computer Security Division develops standards, metrics, tests and validation programs as well as
publishes standards and guidelines to increase secure IT planning, implementation, management
and operation. NIST is also the custodian of the USA Federal Information Processing
Standardpublications (FIPS)].
The Internet Society (ISOC) is a professional membership society with more than 100
organizations and over 20,000 individual members in over 180 countries. It provides leadership
in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organization home for the
groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). The ISOC hosts the Requests for
Comments (RFCs) which includes the Official Internet Protocol Standards and the RFC-2196
Site Security Handbook.
The Information Security Forum is a global nonprofit organization of several hundred leading
organizations in financial services, manufacturing, telecommunications, consumer goods,
government, and other areas. It provides research into best practice and practice advice
summarized in its biannual Standard of Good Practice, incorporating detail specifications across
many areas.
Sources of standards for Information Security
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a consortium of national standards institutes
from 157 countries with a Central Secretariat in Geneva Switzerland that coordinates the system. The
ISO is the world's largest developer of standards. The ISO-15443: "Information technology - Security
techniques - A framework for IT security assurance", ISO-17799: "Information technology - Security
techniques - Code of practice for information security management", ISO-20000: "Information
technology - Service management", and ISO-27001: "Information technology - Security techniques -
Information security management systems" are of particular interest to information security
professionals.
The USA National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a non-regulatory federal agency
within the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration. The NIST Computer Security
Division develops standards, metrics, tests and validation programs as well as publishes standards and
guidelines to increase secure IT planning, implementation, management and operation. NIST is also
the custodian of the USA Federal Information Processing Standard publications (FIPS)].
The Internet Society (ISOC) is a professional membership society with more than 100 organizations
and over 20,000 individual members in over 180 countries. It provides leadership in addressing issues
that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organization home for the groups responsible for
Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet

29
 
Architecture Board (IAB). The ISOC hosts the Requests for Comments (RFCs) which includes the
Official Internet Protocol Standards and the RFC-2196 Site Security Handbook.
Protecting privacy in information systems
Increasingly, as heterogeneous information systems with different privacy rules are interconnected,
technical control and logging mechanisms (policy appliances) will be required to reconcile, enforce
and monitor privacy policy rules (and laws) as information is shared across systems and to ensure
accountability for information use. There are several technologies to address privacy protection in
enterprise IT systems. These fall into two categories: communication and enforcement.

Policy Communication
P3P - The Platform for Privacy Preferences. P3P is a standard for communicating privacy
practices and comparing them to the preferences of individuals.
Policy Enforcement
XACML - The eXtensible Access Control Markup Language together with its Privacy
Profile is a standard for expressing privacy policies in a machine-readable language
which a software system can use to enforce the policy in enterprise IT systems.
EPAL - The Enterprise Privacy Authorization Language is very similar to XACML, but
is not yet a standard.
WS-Privacy - "Web Service Privacy" will be a specification for communicating privacy
policy in web services. For example, it may specify how privacy policy information can
be embedded in the SOAP envelope of a web service message.

North America
Data privacy is not highly legislated or regulated in the U.S.. In the United States, access to
private data is culturally acceptable in many cases, such as credit reports for employment or
housing purposes. Although partial regulations exist, for instance the Children's Online Privacy
Protection Act and HIPAA, there is no all-encompassing law regulating the use of personal data.
The culture of free speech in the U.S. may be a reason for the reluctance to trust the government
to protect personal information. In the U.S. the first amendment protects free speech and in many
instances privacy conflicts with this amendment. In many countries privacy has been used as a
tool to suppress free speech.
The safe harbor arrangement was developed by the US Department of Commerce in order to
provide a means for US companies to demonstrate compliance with European Commission
directives and thus to simplify relations between them and European businesses.
The Supreme Court interpreted the Constitution to grant a right of privacy to individuals in
Griswold v. Connecticut. Very few states, however, recognize an individual's right to privacy, a
notable exception being California. An inalienable right to privacy is enshrined in the California
Constitution's article 1, section 1, and the California legislature has enacted several pieces of
legislation aimed at protecting this right. The California Online Privacy Protection Act (OPPA)
of 2003 requires operators of commercial web sites or online services that collect personal
information on California residents through a web site to conspicuously post a privacy policy on
the site and to comply with its policy.

In Canada, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) went
into effect in relation to federally regulated organizations on 1 January 2001, and in relation to

30
 
all other organizations on 1 January 2004. It brings Canada into compliance with the
requirements of the European Commission's directive. For more information, visit the website of
the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. The text of the Act may be found at [1].

Europe
The right to data privacy is heavily regulated and rigidly enforced in Europe. Article 8 of the
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) provides a right to respect for one's "private
and family life, his home and his correspondence", subject to certain restrictions. The European
Court of Human Rights has given this article a very broad interpretation in its jurisprudence.
According to the Court's case law the collection of information by officials of the state about an
individual without his consent always falls within the scope of article 8. Thus, gathering
information for the official census, recording fingerprints and photographs in a police register,
collecting medical data or details of personal expenditures and implementing a system of
personal identification have been judged to raise data privacy issues. Any state interference with
a person's privacy is only acceptable for the Court if three conditions are fulfilled:

(1) The interference is in accordance with the law
(2) Pursues a legitimate goal and
(3) Is necessary in a democratic society.
.
The government isn't the only one who might pose a threat to data privacy, far from it. Other
citizens and private companies most importantly, engage in far more threatening activities,
especially since the automated processing of data became widespread. The Convention for the
Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data was concluded
within the Council of Europe in 1981. This convention obliges the signatories to enact legislation
concerning the automatic processing of personal data, which many duly did.
As all the member states of the European Union are also signatories of the European Convention
on Human Rights and the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic
Processing of Personal Data, the European Commission was concerned that diverging data
protection legislation would emerge and impede the free flow of data within the EU zone.
Therefore the European Commission decided to harmonize data protection regulation and
proposed the Directive on the protection of personal data, which member states had to transpose
into law by the end of 1998.
The directive contains a number of key principles which must be complied with. Anyone
processing personal data must comply with the eight enforceable principles of good practice.
They say that data must be:
Fairly and lawfully processed.
Processed for limited purposes.
Adequate, relevant and not excessive.
Accurate.
Not kept longer than necessary.
Processed in accordance with the data subject's rights.
Secure.
Not transferred to countries without adequate protection.


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Personal data covers both facts and opinions about the individual. It also includes information
regarding the intentions of the data controller towards the individual, although in some limited
circumstances exemptions will apply. With processing, the definition is far wider than before.
For example, it incorporates the concepts of 'obtaining', 'holding' and 'disclosing'. For more
details on these data principles, read the article about the directive on the protection of personal
data or visit the EU data protection page.
All EU member-states adopted legislation pursuant this directive or adapted their existing laws.
Each country also has its own supervisory authority to monitor the level of protection.
In the United Kingdom the Data Protection Act 1984 was repealed by the Data Protection
Act 1998. For details, visit U.K. data protection page or read the article about the
Information Commissioner
France adapted its existing law (law no. 78-17 of 6 January 1978 concerning information
technology, files and civil liberties).
In Germany both the federal government and the states enacted legislation.

Safe Harbor Program
The US Department of Commerce created the Safe Harbor certification program in response to
the 1995 Directive on Data Protection (Directive 95/46/EC) of the European Commission.
Directive 95/46/EC declares in Chapter IV Article 25 that personal data may only be transferred
from the EU to countries which provide a level of privacy protection equivalent to that of the
EU. This introduced a legal risk to organizations which transfer the personal data of European
citizens to servers in the USA. Such organizations could be penalized under EU laws if the
privacy protection of the USA were to be deemed weaker than that of the EU. The Safe Harbor
program addresses this issue. Under this program, the European Commission agreed to forbid
European citizens from suing US companies for transmitting personal data into the USA. ICT

Data remanence
Data remanence is the residual physical representation of data that have been in some way
erased. After storage media are erased there may be some physical characteristics that allow data
to be reconstructed. As early as 1960 the problem caused by the retentive properties of computer
storage media was recognized. It was known that without the application of data removal
procedures, inadvertent disclosure of sensitive information was possible should the storage
media be released into an uncontrolled environment. Degaussing, overwriting, data encryption,
and media destruction are some of the methods that have been employed to safeguard against
disclosure of sensitive information. Over a period of time, certain practices have been accepted
for the clearing and purging of storage media.

Data theft
Data theft is a growing problem primarily perpetrated by office workers with access to
technology such as desktop computers and hand-held devices, since employees often spend a
considerable amount of time developing contacts and confidential and copyrighted information
for the company they work for they often feel they have some right to the information and are
inclined to copy and/or delete part of it when they leave the company, or misuse it while they are
still in employment.


32
 
While most organizations have implemented firewalls and intrusion-detection systems very few
take into account the threat from the average employee that copies proprietary data for personal
gain or use by another company. A common scenario is where a sales person makes a copy of
the contact database for use in their next job. Typically this is a clear violation of their terms of
employment.
The damage caused by data theft can be considerable with today's ability to transmit very large
files via e-mail, web pages, USB devices, DVD storage and other hand-held devices. Removable
media devices are getting smaller with increased hard drive capacity, and activities such as
podslurping are becoming more and more common. It is now possible to store 80 GB of data on
a device that will fit in an employee's pocket, data that could contribute to the downfall of a
business.
Types of data theft
Thumbsucking
Thumbsucking, similar to podslurping, is the intentional or unintentional use of a portable USB
mass storage device, such as a USB flash drive (or "thumbdrive"), to illicitly download
confidential data from a network endpoint.[1]
The moniker is derived from the act of downloading, or "sucking", data from a network endpoint
onto a USB flash drive or similar storage device.
A USB flash drive was allegedly used to remove without authorization highly-classified
documents about the design of U.S. nuclear weapons from a vault at Los Alamos.[2]
The threat of thumbsucking has been amplified for a number of reasons, including the following:
The storage capacity of portable USB storage devices has increased.
The cost of high-capacity portable USB storage devices has decreased.
Networks have grown more dispersed, the number of remote network access points has
increased and methods of network connection have expanded, increasing the number of
vectors for network infiltration.

Database security
Database security is the system, processes, and procedures that protect a database from
unintended activity. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse, malicious
attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Database Security
is also a specialty within the broader discipline of computer security.
Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on
the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to
being located within a demilitarized zone. Additional network security devices that detect and
alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along
with host-based intrusion detection systems.
Database security is more critical as networks have become more open.
Databases provide many layers and types of information security including:
Access control
Auditing
Authentication
Encryption
Integrity controls

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Database security can begin with the process of creation and publishing of appropriate security
standards for the database environment. The standards may include specific controls for the
various relevant database platforms; a set of best practices that cross over the platforms; and
linkages of the standards to higher level polices and governmental regulations.
An important procedure when evaluating database security is performing vulnerability
assessments against the database. A vulnerability assessment attempts to find vulnerability holes
that could be used to break into the database. Database administrators or information security
administrators run vulnerability scans on databases to discover misconfiguration of controls
within the layers mentioned above along with known vulnerabilities within the database
software. The results of the scans should be used to harden the database in order to mitigate the
threat of compromise by intruders.
A program of continual monitoring for compliance with database security standards is another
important task for mission critical database environments. Two crucial aspects of database
security compliance include patch management and the review and management of permissions
(especially public) granted to objects within the database. Database objects may include table or
other objects listed in the Table link. The permissions granted for SQL language commands on
objects are considered in this process. One should note that compliance monitoring is similar to
vulnerability assessment with the key difference that the results of vulnerability assessments
generally drive the security standards that lead to the continuous monitoring program.
Essentially, vulnerability assessment is a preliminary procedure to determine risk where a
compliance program is the process of on-going risk assessment.
The compliance program should take into consideration any dependencies at the application
software level as changes at the database level may have effects on the application software or
the application server. In direct relation to this topic is that of application security.
Application level authentication and authorization mechanisms should be considered as an
effective means of providing abstraction from the database layer. The primary benefit of
abstraction is that of a single sign-on capability across multiple databases and database
platforms. A Single sign-on system should store the database user's credentials (login id and
password), and authenticate to the database on behalf of the user.
Another security layer of a more sophisticated nature includes the real-time monitoring of
database protocol traffic (SQL) over the network. Analysis can be performed on the traffic for
known exploits or network traffic baselines can be captured overtime to build a normal pattern
used for detection of anomalous activity that could be indicative of intrusion. These systems can
provide a comprehensive Database audit trail in addition to the intrusion detection (and
potentially protection) mechanisms.
When a network level audit system is not feasible a native database audit program should be
instituted. The native audit trails should be extracted on a regular basis and transferred to a
designated security system where the database administrators do not have access. This ensures a
certain level of segregation of duties that may provide evidence the native audit trails were not
modified by authenticated administrators. Generally, the native audit trails of databases do not

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provide sufficient controls to enforce separation of duties; therefore, the network and/or kernel
module level host based monitoring capabilities provides a higher degree of confidence for
forensics and preservation of evidence.
After an incident occurs, the usage of Database Forensics can be employed to determine the
scope.
A Database Security program should include the regular review of permissions granted to
individually owned accounts and accounts used by automated processes. The accounts used by
automated processes should have appropriate controls around password storage such as sufficient
encryption and access controls to reduce the risk of compromise. For individual accounts, a two-
factor authentication system should be considered in a database environment where the risk is
commensurate with the expenditure for such an authentication system.
In conjunction with a sound Database Security program, an appropriate disaster recovery
program should exist to ensure that service is not interrupted during a security incident or any
other incident that results in an outage of the primary database environment. An example is that
of replication for the primary databases to sites located in different geographical regions.
Data and Computer Security ­ A case study of Carnegie Mellon University
(Confidentiality of Administrative Data)
Policy Statement
Access to data residing in administrative systems and applications at Carnegie Mellon University
is to be granted only to those individuals who must, in the course of exercising their
responsibilities, use the specific information. Access to administrative data will be granted to
university employees only. With special permission, a student may access data if the data
pertains to that student or if that student is also an employee of the university. Individuals outside
the university can be authorized access to university data only if that authorization is granted by
an Executive Officer of the university.
Access and update capabilities/restrictions will apply to all administrative data, data stored on the
Administrative Computing and Information Services (ACIS) computers and on mini-computers
and micro-computers across campus. Security measures apply to administrative systems
developed and/or maintained by university departments or outside vendors.
This policy only covers administrative aspects of academic and research units.
Reason for Policy
Carnegie Mellon University maintains data which are essential to performing university
business. These data are to be viewed as valued resources over which the university has both
rights and obligations to manage, secure, protect, and control. This policy secures and protects
data defined as administrative data stored in and accessible by university-owned computing
systems and accessible by university employees in their official university capacities. In addition,
this policy addresses the broader data issues of the rights and responsibilities of authorized
persons in the handling, as well as the security and protection, of university data.
Who Does This Policy Apply To?
Employees
Alumnae(i)
Students with special permission

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Trustees
Authorized persons with interests in:
o University Finances
o Education/Instruction
o Research
o University Facilities
o Employee Data
o Student/Alumni Data
Security Administration
Ownership of Administrative Data
In order to control access and update capabilities, an individual residing in the user area
responsible for the specific application will be designated as the Data Owner. This individual
performs in a supervisory or managerial capacity and is responsible for the data residing in the
designated system. The responsibilities of the Data Owner are to:
Ensure proper operating controls over the application in order to maintain a secure
processing environment;
Ensure accuracy and quality of data residing in application;
Approve all requests for access to and update capability for the specific application;
Ensure system issues impacting the quality of data within the system are properly
reported and adequately resolved.
On an annual basis, the Data Owner and the Data Security Officer will review the current set of
access and update capabilities granted to each individual on the system in order to ensure that no
changes are necessary.

Stewardship of Administrative Data
In addition to the Data Owner, others will process and handle data in the course of the
administrative cycle. They too will be responsible for the security of the data. These individuals
and divisions include:

Data Security Officer
The Data Security Officer is responsible for all systems-related security issues associated with a
particular application. A Data Security Officer will be appointed by the Assistant Vice President,
ACIS, for each application and will act as the contact person for establishing, altering or deleting
computer user ids and determining data access needs within a system.
Administrative Computing and Information Services (ACIS)
Administrative Computing and Information Services is responsible for the design, programming
and maintenance of administrative applications. In designing or updating systems,
Administrative Computing and Information Services must be aware of any security impacts of
such designs and ensure that proper security control is programmed into each application to
provide a secure computing environment and adequate protection of data. The Data Security
Officer must convey application-specific security needs to the Assistant Vice President, ACIS.
Computing Systems
Computing Services maintains and operates the equipment upon which most central server
administrative applications reside. It is the responsibility of Computing Services to ensure
adequate physical security over such equipment, restrict equipment access to authorized

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personnel only, and adequately assure that output containing confidential information is properly
safeguarded. Responsibilities also include maintenance of operating system-level security
specific to the computing equipment under their jurisdiction.
Administrative Computing Security Committee
The Administrative Computing Security Committee is responsible for the maintenance of a
secure administrative processing environment at Carnegie Mellon. The committee formulates
overall policy, addresses issues impacting computer security, and reviews situations involving
violations of computer security policy.

Data Accessibility
Because different types of data require different levels of security, data is classified into four
categories: Public Information, Campus-Wide Information, Restricted Information - Moderately
Sensitive, and Restricted Information - Highly Sensitive. Each category is explained below. For
detailed examples of accessibility by data type, see the Appendix, Table 2.
Public Information is available or distributed to the general public either regularly or upon
request.

Computing Security Procedures
Establishing Minimum Security Measures
Operating Systems
Operating Systems used for administrative computing will provide for, at a minimum, the
following security features:
Discretionary access controls, where individual users can be included/excluded from
accessing files and other objects or from achieving certain forms of access (READ,
WRITE, EXECUTE, DELETE, CONTROL).
Prevention of disk scavenging (obtaining disk space that contains another user's data).
Notification to the data owner/computer operator/data security officer of security
breaches (unauthorized attempts to access certain files or the system). Maintenance of an
audit record of security events, as well as authorized or unauthorized files access.
Ability to audit changes to user id files and mounts/dismounts of disks and tapes.
Ability for idle terminals logged into applications to be disconnected after a 15-minute
period.
An encryption system to provide a high level of security for sensitive data transmission
files.
Login features such as
o Automatic disconnection on multiple login failures
o Break-in detection and disabling user ids for a period of time after detection
o Automatic id expiration - Access restrictions based on user id, time of day and
day of week
o Control over dial-up or network access to restricted data and systems

Database Management Systems
Database management software used in administrative application development will have the
following features:
Ability to designate the database "private" or "public"
Access capabilities which can be restricted at the table and field levels

37
 
Access capabilities which can be restricted based on user, time of day, day of week
Audit trails/journals which record important system activity
Control checkpoints

Applications
Applications developed in-house or purchased from a third party will be examined to determine:
Security features used by the software (such as secondary passwords, captive user ids,
etc.)
Security enhancements or improvements needed to meet acceptable security levels.
Interaction with other systems and related security implications.
The Data Security Officer and Administrative Computing and Information Services should
examine application-level security on a system-by-system basis. Because of the complex
interaction with other applications, the operating system, the underlying databases, as well as the
needs of the user community and the nature of the data, there are many intervening factors which
preclude an overall policy for application-level security. The security features of any new
software will always be considered a priority in the selection and development of such software.
Network
Interactive access to applications occurs in many ways, e.g.:
Terminal attachment to systems via a local area network
Direct attachment to the serial lines
Internet or web-based access

Terminals attached via networks are susceptible to monitoring and their passwords are insecure.
Any local area network must be physically secure and is the responsibility of each person
authorized to access administrative information to ensure the physical security of the local area
network on which they operate. The login process should transmit only encrypted passwords
across the network. Unauthorized persons shall not be permitted to access portions of the
networks being used for transmitting university administrative data.
Periodic review and correction of network security weaknesses are undertaken jointly by the
Administrative Computing and Information Services (ACIS) Department and the Data
Communications Department of the Division of Computing Services. All weaknesses and
security breaches will be reviewed by the Assistant Vice President, ACIS.
Establishing Backup and Recovery Procedures
Backup and recovery procedures must be developed and maintained for all administrative
computing systems and data. The following requirements must be met:
Provisions for regular backup of data residing on the system.
Storage of backup media at a location remote from the processing center.
Approved Disaster Recovery Plan written and implemented to cover situations in which
hardware and/or software cannot run in its normal environment.

The Data Security Officer should periodically review backup and recovery procedures to ensure
their continued applicability.
Protecting and Managing Passwords
Passwords are a critical component to any computer security program. To properly control
passwords and maintain their integrity, the guidelines below will be followed:

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Passwords will automatically expire every 90 days, or more frequently in cases of user
ids with access to very sensitive data.
Users must never give out their personal password to anyone; sharing of passwords is a
violation of this policy.
As part of the educational process, the Data Security Officer will provide users with
guidelines for selecting and changing their passwords.
A password monitoring program will run weekly to check for insecure passwords. For
example, the program would check to see if the user's first, last or middle name, user id,
or other common words like "system," are used as passwords. If a user is found to have
an insecure password, the program will notify them to change it. If the password has not
been changed within one week, the user will again be notified, and the Data Security
Officer will also be notified.
Generic user ids will not exist, except as the source for the production, maintenance, and
development of application systems. In cases where many people log in under a single user id,
audit trails and system statistics become ineffective in assigning responsibility.
Appropriate operating system security alarms will be activated, and available auditing tools will
be in use.

Managing Systems for Employee Turnover
When an employee terminates employment with a department or the university, follow the
guidelines below.
Immediately change or remove the passwords for those user ids to which an employee
leaving the university has had access or update capabilities. This standard practice serves
to protect the employee in the event of any problems and the university systems against
possible tampering. Monitoring such user ids is primarily the responsibility of user area
management, with assistance from the Data Owner and the Data Security Officer.
When an employee's termination is processed by the Human Resource Information
System, the Computer Billing System will automatically receive notification. Upon
receiving this notification, the user id will be suspended, and the Data Security Officer
will be alerted so that any necessary files may be retrieved and the user id is deleted.
Reinstatement will require the same level of authorization as establishing a new user id.

User Security Procedures
Requesting Authorization for Administrative Data Access Capabilities
If you wish to gain access to administrative data, follow the steps below:
1. Complete a Request for Data Access form. Make sure that you and your immediate
supervisor have signed the form. This form certifies that access to the specific application
or data sets is related to the completion of your work responsibilities.
2. Send the form to the Data Owner who reviews the form and evaluates the request with
respect to the data that will be made available.

If your request is approved by the Data Owner
1. The Data Owner signs the form as evidence of approval.
2. The form is forwarded to the Data Security Officer.

39
 
3. The Data Security Officer reviews the form and ensures that the action to be taken will
not breach data security from a systems perspective. The Data Security Officer is also
responsible for identifying the most appropriate method of granting your request.

4. Upon approving the request, the Data Security Officer will initiate the proper action
through either the Accounts Coordinator or Administrative Computing and Information
Services to physically set up your user id on the specific system and/or application.

5. Once this process has been completed, you will receive a new user id and password,
along with the original request form and any necessary instructions.

If your request is denied by the Data Owner or the Data Security Officer
1. The form will be returned to you with an explanation of the reason(s) for rejection.
2. If you have been denied access, you may appeal to the Administrative Computing
Security Committee for review. The judgment of the committee is final in all cases.

Requesting Access to Restricted Information
1. Requests for access to restricted information for a department or a division must be
authorized by the applicable department head and dean/division head.
2. Requests for access to information for multiple divisions or university-wide must be
signed by the provost or appropriate vice president. Authorization is to be granted to
employees who have job responsibilities requiring the information requested.
3. State whether you require one-time access or continual access.

Requesting Authorization for Administrative Data Update Capabilities
Sometimes when you request authorization to access data, you may also want to request the
ability to update data within an administrative application. The responsibility for approving such
capabilities rests solely with the Data Owner. In general, such update capabilities are to be
limited to individuals working in the organizational area(s) supported by the specific application
or system, e.g. only Payroll Office and Benefits Office staff members may update data within the
Human Resource Information System. It is important to emphasize that data update capabilities
will be limited to those who require the capabilities to successfully meet their job
responsibilities.

The Data Security Officer ensures that update capabilities are made available only to authorized
users and that data not authorized for update will be satisfactorily protected.
When new applications are being developed or significant changes are being made to existing
systems, general guidelines will be established to define who should have data update
capabilities.

Distributing Administrative Information
Just as care must be exercised in granting access or update capabilities to administrative
data/systems, such care must also be extended to the distribution of administrative information
generated by the university's administrative systems.
The Data Owner is responsible for determining:
Which data within administrative systems are appropriate for distribution.

40
 
The audience for distribution.
The methods and timing of distribution.

The Data Owner must ensure that:
The information distributed is in compliance with any regulatory requirement (e.g.,
Buckley amendment) or university policy (e.g., employee salaries are not made available
to the public).
The distribution methods or non-system data storage (i.e., paper or diskettes) provide
adequate security over the information contained on the particular media.

The Data Security Officer provides assistance in coordinating security measures over data
distribution with Computing Systems and Administrative Computing and Information Services
personnel.

Maintaining Confidentiality of Restricted Data
In the course of accessing data or information, you might access restricted information within the
particular database. It is the responsibility of the Data Owner to ensure that all individuals with
access to restricted data are aware of the confidential nature of the information and the
limitations, in terms of disclosure, that apply.
When accessing restricted information, you are responsible for maintaining its
confidentiality. The granting of a user id and password assumes that you will maintain
confidentiality over appropriate information without exception.
The release of restricted data without the express approval of the Data Owner or outside
the guidelines established for such data will not be tolerated.
Unauthorized release of restricted information will result in appropriate disciplinary
action, including possible dismissal. All matters involving university employees will be
reviewed with the assistant vice president for human resources and/or the provost.
Matters involving students will be reviewed with the dean of student affairs. Matters
involving individuals not affiliated with the university will be reviewed with the
university attorney.

Reporting Data Security Breaches
If you are aware of possible breaches in administrative data/computer security, you are strongly
encouraged to report such occurrences to the Assistant Vice President, ACIS. Such reports will
be held in strict confidence and promptly investigated by the committee. Likewise, Data Owners
and Data Security Officers are responsible for reporting security breaches identified during the
course of their responsibilities to the Administrative Computing Security Committee.
Upon notification of possible security breaches, the Administrative Computing Security
Committee will investigate all facts related to the situation and recommend appropriate
disciplinary action to university management. All matters involving university employees will be
reviewed with the assistant vice president for human resources and/or the provost. Matters
involving students will be reviewed with the dean of student affairs. Matters involving
individuals not affiliated with the university will be reviewed with the university attorney.
Enforcing Penalties for Unauthorized Data Access or Disclosure (Unfortunately this body has
not been set up here in Gambia)


41
 
All individuals with responsibility over or access to administrative data at Carnegie Mellon are
expected to follow the policies and procedures in this document and to exercise discretion with
regard to such information. Any university employee, student or non-university individual with
access to administrative data who engages in unauthorized use, disclosure, alteration or
destruction of data in violation of this policy will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action,
including possible dismissal and/or legal action. The following steps will be taken:
1. Upon the identification of a potential breach of security or a misuse of information, the
Administrative Computing Security Committee will meet to review the specific situation.
2. The Committee will present a recommendation to university management for action. All
matters involving university employees will be reviewed with the assistant vice president
of human resources and/or the provost. Matters involving students will be reviewed with
the dean of student affairs. Matters involving individuals not affiliated with the university
will be reviewed with the university attorney.

Responsibilities
The following shows the responsibilities each party has in connection with this policy.
You (individual requesting access)
Complete Request for Data Access form.
Get required signatures for form.
Use system, application and data responsibly.
Maintain data confidentiality of restricted data.
Report incidents of possible security breaches.

Administrative Computing Security Committee
Reports to the Administrative Computing and Information Services Executive Steering
Committee.
Ensures maintenance of a secure processing environment.
Recommends university policy regarding administrative data and computer security.
Addresses issues impacting computer security.
Reviews situations involving violations of computer security policy.

Administrative Computing and Information Services
Designs, programs, tests, and/or maintains administrative applications.
Analyzes security impacts of programs.
Ensures that proper control is built within a system to provide a secure computing
environment and to protect data.

Assistant Vice president, ACIS
Appoints and/or approves Data Security Officers.

Computing Systems
Operates the equipment on which most of the administrative applications reside.
Ensures adequate physical security over the equipment.
Ensures proper processing of administrative applications within user-established
timetables.
Assures that output containing restricted information is properly safeguarded.

42
 
Maintains security at operating system level specific to the various types of machinery.

Data Owner
Determines what data are appropriate for distribution and update.
Ensures proper operating controls over the application to maintain a secure processing
environment.
Ensures accuracy and quality of data residing in application.
Approves all requests for access to and update capability for the specific application.
Ensures system issues impacting the quality of data within the system are properly
reported and adequately resolved.
Reviews annually, in conjunction with the Data Security Officer, the current set of access
capabilities granted to all individuals on the system to ensure that the status is current and
accurate and that no changes are necessary.

Data Security Officer
Evaluates and controls all system access.
Acts as contact person for the establishment, alteration or deletion of computer user ids
and data access needs within a system.
Evaluates and resolves all systems-related security issues for a particular application.
Provides guidelines for system security, e.g., changing passwords.
Reviews annually, in conjunction with Data Owner, the current set of access capabilities
granted to all individuals on the system.

Department Head/Supervisor
Communicates specific security needs to Administrative Computing and Information
Services.
Communicates employee terminations and status changes immediately to Data Security
Officer to ensure proper deletion/revision of user ids, access and update capabilities to
administrative applications.


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Chapter 6

Conclusion

All organizations require information for planning, controlling, recording transactions, performance
measurement and decision-making. And such Information whether internal or external must be kept
properly and well protected from intruders, hackers and unauthorized individuals.

Organizations across the globe in every industry sector are under increasing pressure and scrutiny to
maintain the security and integrity of their data. Companies are faced with an enormous liability if
sensitive, business critical, or confidential information gets into the wrong hands.

The field of information security has grown and evolved significantly in recent years. As a career
choice there are many ways of gaining entry into the field. It offers many areas for specialization
including Information Systems Auditing, Business Continuity Planning and Digital Forensics Science,
to name a few.
Although information security has traditionally been the responsibility of IT departments, some
companies have made it a business issue as well as a technological one. Companies are now adding
strategic, operational, and organizational safeguards to the technological measures they currently
employ to protect corporate information. But most companies continue to view information security as
a technological problem calling for technological solutions even though technology managers concede
that today`s networks cannot be made impenetrable and that new security technologies have a short life
span as hackers quickly devise ways around them. Delegating security to technologists also ignores
fundamental questions that only business managers can answer. Not all of a company`s varied
information assets have equal value, for instance; some require more attention than others. One on-line
retailer, Egghead.com, lost 25 percent of its stock market value in December 2000, when hackers
struck its customer information systems and gained access to 3.7 million credit card numbers.
Egghead, of course, had security systems in place and claimed that no data were actually stolen, but it
lacked the kind of coordinated organizational response necessary to convince customers and
shareholders that their sensitive data were actually secure.
Information security means the appropriate protection of information, systems, services and data
communications by administrative, technical and other measures both in ordinary and exceptional
circumstances. The confidentiality, integrity and availability of information is protected against threats
and damage caused by faults in hardware and software, natural events and willful, negligent or
accidental events.

The central concepts of information security have the following meanings: Confidentiality:
information and systems are accessible only to those authorized to use them. Third parties are not
given a possibility to alter or destroy information nor to process it otherwise.

Integrity: information and systems are reliable, correct and up-to-date and they have not been altered
nor can they be altered in an uncontrolled way as a result of hardware or software faults, natural events
or human activities.


44
 
Availability: information and services in the systems are accessible to those entitled to use them within
a response time determined in advance. The information has not been destroyed nor can it be destroyed
as a result of faults, events or other operations.

Other general requirements of information security include the verification of the parties and the non-
repudiation of a transaction, which are especially important when it must be possible to identify the
users of the system for example for interactive electronic communications or remote work.
(Authentication means reliable identification of the parties (person or system)). (Non-repudiation
means subsequent legally binding proof of what has happened).
Non-repudiation ensures that the other party cannot deny its actions afterwards.

The operations of public administration are extremely dependent on data and information technology.
Information society development, internationalization, networking and the transfer of operations and
services to data networks further enhance their significance. Information security is the means to
ensure the management of important information and the continuity of operations. Information security
is also important because public administration processes a lot of important information, such as
personal data, financial information and documents of various organizations. Some of the information
has to be kept secret or it is sensitive or otherwise confidential. Information to be kept secret means
documents and information provided secret by the law. Secrecy is governed by the Act on the
Openness of Government Activities, the Personal Data Act and other special Acts. Certain documents
of the authorities to be kept secret are governed by a security classification. Therefore it is important
that the information does not, willfully or otherwise, end up in the hands of unauthorized parties.

In addition, public administration involves a lot of information that is not to be kept secret but which is
public in nature, but we must ensure that also this information is correct, unaltered and accessible and
processed according to the law.
Sensitive Data Protection
Data Encryption
Approximately $20 billion per year is spent on IT security by enterprises worldwide; however, costly
breaches such as devastating thefts of sensitive data continue to occur. In large part, the expanding loss
of sensitive data can be attributed to security efforts mainly concentrating on network security rather
than data privacy.
Until recently, the industry has seen network security primarily in terms of the defenses deployed
against external threats. However such security infrastructure is beginning to struggle to keep up with
the evolution of organizational working behaviors and advancing privacy of information threats.
Common data security problems faced by government and industry include:
Perimeter security, consisting of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS) and anti virus measures,
form the 'Front Line' of tools used to create a trusted network. Such security infrastructure provides
little protection for data at the asset level against the risk of a savvy hacker breaking through the
firewall into the organizations network and gaining access to unprotected data.

45
 
The loss of a laptop computer equates to the enterprise having to deal with more than just the cost of
the device. Reputable industry analysts such as Gartner and IDC estimate the loss of a laptop
computer, on average, costs the organization around US $35,000 in lost sensitive data.
Recent analysis by numerous high profile industry research organizations (Gartner, IDC) have
identified internal staff pose 80% of the threat to organizations confidential information, with external
threats constituting 20%. The increased work practice of saving data centrally on file servers and
databases, multi-site network connected workstations and laptops, outsourced storage providers, plus
the growing use of mobile data storage media, has escalated internal digital asset security risks
The encryption of data files stored on network file servers and workstations often impose restrictions
on user access and can reduce employee productivity.
Common sensitive data related risks imposed on organizations include (to mention a few):
Loss of corporate strategy secrets and R&D information for instance, can cost an organization first
mover advantage.
The exposure of personal information of customers and employees can violate civil and criminal
privacy laws in many regions of the globe. Such legislated acts include Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, The
Australian Federal Privacy Act 1998, the European Data Protection Directive, plus others.
The risk to a company`s public image is heightened by the ease of which internal and external threats
can access sensitive company information.
Financial penalties and damage to an organization`s public image if authenticity of financial
information is compromised, as governed by corporate accounting regulations such as Sarbanes Oxley
section 404.
The vulnerability of sensitive information stored within an Application Service Provider (ASP)
external data storage facility. This includes the risks of who can gain access, plus the susceptibility of
data traffic traversing the non-secure Internet between the outsourced external server and the client
device within the organization.
Data encryption delivers the ultimate level of defense to assist protection against the above, and many
other threats.
Hackers and data thieves, whom are savvy enough to penetrate the strongest levels of perimeter
security, still face the ultimate challenge of deciphering the encryption algorithm to unlock the
encrypted data. This additional layer of defense, utilizing industry proven encryption algorithms to
protect asset level data at rest, is virtually impossible to break.
Disk encryption encrypts the entire hard drive of a laptop, workstation and server, to protect against
disclosure of its information in the case of theft, accidental loss, or disposal of the hardware device.
File Encryption with cryptographically endorsed access control, encrypts files and folders of
confidential information within network connected servers, workstations and laptops. Access rights to
encrypted files and folders can be easily managed for individuals and groups within the organization.
This ensures that sensitive electronic information remains confidential against both internal and

46
 
external threats of loss, theft and unauthorized exposure. Only those identities with authenticated
access have the ability to read, write and modify the applicable files. As encryption and decryption is
undertaken on the client, data files traveling the LAN and unprotected WAN (e.g. between outsourced
external servers or remote users), are secured against the threat of unauthorized exposure.
Portable media encryption enables secure, encrypted transfer and storage of confidential data files on
unprotected mediums (local, portable and on the network) that are difficult to defend by conventional
network mechanisms employed within perimeter security. This includes data transferred via a portable
USB drive, burnt to a CD or DVD, via email, plus any other of today`s or tomorrow`s file mobility
technology.
Each of the Eracom Technologies data encryption products, ProtectDrive, ProtectFile and ProtectPack,
are a robust solution for the protection of electronic information where confidentiality is imperative.
When used in combination, this range of data encryption products can provide a heightened level of
security. The Protect` family of data encryption products is designed specifically for medium to large
organizations to uniquely address the industry needs for data integrity, confidentiality and controlled
availability.
Solutions
ATM/EFTPOS Transactions
ATM and EFTPOS applications have grown enormously, with rapid acceptance and adoption by users
of the magnetic stripe card and more recently the smart card. As more transactions take place over
unsecured networks, there is a huge exposure and increasing threat of disclosure of PINs and
fraudulent transactions.
Magnetic stripe card standards have evolved from single DES based systems to triple DES based
systems to increase the strength of the cryptography to prevent possible attacks. There is also an
increasing need to introduce smart card based systems such as EMV to replace magnetic stripe cards.
The use of hardware security modules (HSMs) in ATM and EFTPOS network environments is a
widely accepted industrial practice and is mandated by major institutions such as Visa and MasterCard.
Eracom Technologies' HSM product family provides cryptographic services for ATM and EFTPOS
applications. The cryptography used by these systems protects transactions and authenticates terminals
and other nodes to protect PINs as they travel across global networks for verification by the issuing
institutions.
Eracom` Technologies' HSMs fully support the requirements for EFTPOS processing for magnetic
stripe card with DES and Triple DES. They also support EMV smart card transactions.
Card Management
To meet the increasing regulatory requirements for stronger user authentication for electronic
transactions, major financial bodies have adopted smart card systems. With this increasing use of smart

47
 
card technologies by financial institutions and large organizations, there is a growing need for
centralized and secure management capability to maintain large volumes of cards.
The main functions of card management systems are:
Card personalization such as private user information, secret / private keys and public certificates
Certificate generation for injection into smart cards
The requirements for such systems include:
High availability ­ no tolerance to stoppage of automated card processing equipment
High speed or throughput of key generation
High security
To achieve this it is necessary to integrate card management systems with hardware security modules
(HSMs) to deliver the required level of security and performance. As a pioneer and leader in
cryptographic technologies, Eracom Technologies' HSMs have been certified to FIPS 140-1 Level 3 to
ensure the highest level of security for these functions.
PKCS#11/Cryptoki
Public Key Cryptography Standard (PKCS) is a suite of specifications developed by RSA Security in
conjunction with system developers worldwide for the purpose of accelerating the deployment of
public key cryptography.
PKCS#11 (also known as Cryptoki) is the specification for the cryptographic token interface standard.
It defines a technology independent programming interface for cryptographic applications such as
smart cards, PIN authentication and validation, certificate generation and management, and for the
support of emerging crypto services.
Eracom Technologies has been actively involved in the definition, development and implementation of
PKCS#11 (Cryptoki) standard by participating in standards committees and promoting its adoption in
government, banking & financial institutions, defense and other major IT security sectors.
Eracom Technologies Solution
Eracom Technologies' ProtectToolkit C is the industry leading implementation and product category of
PKCS#11 (Cryptoki) specifications. ProtectToolkit C provides an open interface to work with various
application providers. It is supported by the following Eracom Technologies' Hardware Security
Modules (HSMs):
ProtectHost Orange
ProtectServer Gold

48
 
ProtectServer Orange
JCA/JCE
Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) is defined by Sun Microsystems to introduce a core API of the
Java programming language. This security API framework is designed to allow developers to
incorporate both low-level and high-level security functionality into their program.
Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) extends the JCA API to include APIs for encryption, key
exchange and Message Authentication Code (MAC). Therefore, JCA/JCE provides a complete,
platform-independent cryptography API.
Solution
ProtectToolkit J is a flexible, performance-optimized, full-strength software crypto toolkit for all
popular computing platforms. Eracom Technologies' Hardware Security Modules (HSMs), including
ProtectHost Orange, ProtectServer Orange, ProtectServer Gold and ProtectServer Blue, perform
cryptographic functions in a physically and logically secure, accelerated and high-speed processing
environment.
Microsoft CryptoAPI
CryptoAPI is Microsoft`s application programming interface that enables application developers to add
authentication, encoding and encryption to Windows-based applications.
The strength of a cryptosystem is dependent on the storage and management of the keys. Only
hardware security modules such as Eracom Technologies' ProtectHost and ProtectServer family
products can afford a much higher level of security owing to the built-in tamper-response feature,
scalability, random number generation ability, and the highest assurance. In particular, ProtectToolkit
M supports the processing-intense RSA public key algorithms for 4,096 bits.
Solution
ProtectToolkit M is Eracom Technologies' implementation of a Microsoft Cryptographic Service
Provider (CSP). It allows a Windows-based application to call the Microsoft Cryptographic API
(CAPI), to make use of the secure key storage and high speed cryptographic processing capabilities
provided by Eracom Technologies` HSM family of products including:
ProtectHost Orange
ProtectServer Gold
ProtectServer Orange
Common data security problems faced by government and industry include:

49
 
Perimeter security, consisting of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS) and anti virus measures,
form the 'Front Line' of tools used to create a trusted network. Such security infrastructure provides
little protection for data at the asset level against the risk of a savvy hacker breaking through the
firewall into the organizations network and gaining access to unprotected data.
The loss of a laptop computer equates to the enterprise having to deal with more than just the cost of
the device. Reputable industry analysts such as Gartner and IDC estimate the loss of a laptop
computer, on average, costs the organization around US $35,000 in lost sensitive data.
Recent analysis by numerous high profile industry research organizations (Gartner, IDC) have
identified internal staff pose 80% of the threat to organizations confidential information, with external
threats constituting 20%. The increased work practice of saving data centrally on file servers and
databases, multi-site network connected workstations and laptops, outsourced storage providers, plus
the growing use of mobile data storage media, has escalated internal digital asset security risks
The encryption of data files stored on network file servers and workstations often impose restrictions
on user access and can reduce employee productivity.
Common sensitive data related risks imposed on organizations include (to mention a few):
Loss of corporate strategy secrets and R&D information for instance, can cost an organization first
mover advantage.
The exposure of personal information of customers and employees can violate civil and criminal
privacy laws in many regions of the globe. Such legislated acts include Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, The
Australian Federal Privacy Act 1998, the European Data Protection Directive, plus others.
The risk to a company`s public image is heightened by the ease of which internal and external threats
can access sensitive company information.
Financial penalties and damage to an organization`s public image if authenticity of financial
information is compromised, as governed by corporate accounting regulations such as Sarbanes Oxley
section 404.
The vulnerability of sensitive information stored within an Application Service Provider (ASP)
external data storage facility. This includes the risks of who can gain access, plus the susceptibility of
data traffic traversing the non-secure Internet between the outsourced external server and the client
device within the organization.
Data encryption delivers the ultimate level of defense to assist protection against the above, and many
other threats.
Hackers and data thieves, whom are savvy enough to penetrate the strongest levels of perimeter
security, still face the ultimate challenge of deciphering the encryption algorithm to unlock the
encrypted data. This additional layer of defense, utilizing industry proven encryption algorithms to
protect asset level data at rest, is virtually impossible to break.

50
 
Disk encryption, delivered by Eracom Technologies ProtectDrive, encrypts the entire hard drive of a
laptop, workstation and server, to protect against disclosure of its information in the case of theft,
accidental loss, or disposal of the hardware device.
File Encryption with cryptographically endorsed access control, delivered by Eracom Technologies
ProtectFile, encrypts files and folders of confidential information within network connected servers,
workstations and laptops. Access rights to encrypted files and folders can be easily managed for
individuals and groups within the organization. This ensures that sensitive electronic information
remains confidential against both internal and external threats of loss, theft and unauthorized exposure.
Only those identities with authenticated access have the ability to read, write and modify the applicable
files. As encryption and decryption is undertaken on the client, data files traveling the LAN and
unprotected WAN (e.g. between outsourced external servers or remote users), are secured against the
threat of unauthorized exposure.
Portable media encryption, delivered by ProtectPack, enables secure, encrypted transfer and storage of
confidential data files on unprotected mediums (local, portable and on the network) that are difficult to
defend by conventional network mechanisms employed within perimeter security. This includes data
transferred via a portable USB drive, burnt to a CD or DVD, via email, plus any other of today`s or
tomorrow`s file mobility technology.
Each of the Eracom Technologies data encryption products, ProtectDrive, ProtectFile and ProtectPack,
are a robust solution for the protection of electronic information where confidentiality is imperative.
When used in combination, this range of data encryption products can provide a heightened level of
security. The Protect` family of data encryption products is designed specifically for medium to large
organizations to uniquely address the industry needs for data integrity, confidentiality and controlled
availability.
The University of Texas at Austin Responds to Data Theft
As one of the world`s largest academic institutions, The University of Texas at Austin maintains and
uses vast information resources, including personal information collected from students, alumni,
faculty and staff, vendors and others with whom we do business. It has long been the university`s
policy and practice to treat personal information with the utmost care and diligence. In April 2006, a
deliberate theft of data from the McCombs School of Business served to highlight the necessity of this
commitment. It also underscored the ubiquity, severity and sophistication of today`s threats to
information security.




51
 
Fraud Alert Update



If you believe your personal information has been compromised you may place a fraud alert with
the national credit bureaus, good for 90 days. The alert may be renewed indefinitely.

Step-by-step instructions can be found at the Fraud Alert, Data Theft and Identity Theft Resources
page.

The McCombs Help Center page addresses many subjects regarding the data theft, as well as
questions involving credit and credit protection.
Jay Foley Interview


52
 


Jay Foley, cofounder of the nonprofit Identity Theft Resource Center, discusses the growing
problem of data theft and identity theft in America.

Foley Interview - wmv
Foley Interview - QuickTime


Since the data theft in April, 2006, the University focused its work on three areas relating to the data
theft and the issue of data security in general:
Security: Ways we are improving security measures to ensure this never happens again.
Remediation: Steps being taken to lessen the exposure of Social Security numbers in our systems.
Protection: Resources and tips for responding to identity theft concerns.
Security
We carefully examined all of our existing security systems. A full security audit was conducted by the
UT Information Security Office. In addition, we called in independent consultants and major IT firms
to do a comprehensive evaluation of our systems and applications.
Specific security steps were implemented to eliminate vulnerabilities. We cannot comment in detail on
the steps taken, as it would not be in the interest of ongoing security, but we can tell you that we took
definitive steps to secure the safety of information on our server. This includes removing all Social

53
 
Security numbers from the McCombs server, and disabling several administrative programs containing
personal information.
We cooperated with law enforcement authorities. Cyber Crimes Unit investigators from Texas
Attorney General Greg Abbott`s office investigated the data theft at McCombs, in coordination with
the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the UT Police Department. Internet security and data theft are
obviously enormous global problems, and any institution with a substantial database is at risk. Data
theft is a serious crime. While we still do not know who committed this crime, it is apparent from the
evidence that this was a dedicated, highly skilled attack carried out by someone who knew exactly
what they were doing. We do not know the motivations for the theft.
We added security resources. McCombs has significant resources dedicated to computer system
functionality and security, and we added additional security expertise and technical capability to ensure
that we can fully implement the recommendations highlighted by our security audits.
Remediation
McCombs has made changes in compliance with the University`s remediation plan. We have disabled
several administrative programs, and removed all Social Security numbers from the McCombs server.
The University has an active remediation effort campus-wide. The University has spent tens of
thousands of work hours and millions of dollars upgrading our databases to eliminate sensitive data
where possible. At an institution the size of UT Austin, with more than 150 separate business units, it`s
an enormous task. But this is being taken very seriously, under direction of the Information Security
Office.
Protection
UT Austin communicated with nearly 200,000 individuals regarding the theft. This includes 45,000 e-
mails, followed by 80,000 letters to those with SSN`s compromised. Tens of thousands of all-clear e-
mails and letters were sent, followed by an additional 60,000-plus letters to those with non-sensitive
information compromised. The University far exceeded the legal notification requirements, and made
an attempt to contact everyone for whom we have a valid address or e-mail.
Our call center and response teams handled thousands of inquiries. Our data theft call center handled
over 9,000 calls from concerned individuals, and our on-site response team followed up with

54
 
approximately 6,000 personal calls or e-mails, answering specific questions and gathering updated
contact information.
Identity protection resources have been shared. This site provides valuable information to help protect
against identity theft, including step-by-step instructions on filing a free 90-day fraud alert. In addition,
we provide links to both government resources and commercial programs for credit protection and
monitoring.
We will report any evidence of identity theft. To date, the University has not seen any patterns of
identity theft resulting from the data theft at McCombs. It has been estimated there are over 50 million
data thefts every year, so naturally it would be difficult to link a specific incident of identity theft to
this particular crime. However, we are taking any report of suspicious activity seriously, and are
turning that information over to authorities investigating this crime.
Is your company keeping information secure?
Most companies keep sensitive personal information in their files and on their computers--names,
Social Security numbers, account data--that identifies customers or employees. You`ll need
information like that to fill orders, meet payroll, or perform other necessary business functions. But if
sensitive data falls into the wrong hands, it can lead to fraud or identity theft.
Safeguarding sensitive data is just plain good business. Are you taking steps to protect personal
information? A sound data security plan is built on five key principles:
Take stock. Know what personal information you have in your files and on your computers.
Scale down. Keep only what you need for your business.
Lock it. Protect the information you keep.
Pitch it. Properly dispose of what you no longer need.
Plan ahead. Create a plan to respond to security incidents.
Information Security Plan for Organizations
Purpose
The purpose of the Information Technology Division (ITD) Data Security Plan is to ensure that steps
to safeguard data information use, storage and transmission are established.

1. All access to computer servers/networks must be controlled through the use of
accounts/passwords or other ITD approved means.


55
 
2. Physical access to key areas such as computer server rooms and storage
areas must be restricted to necessary personnel only. These areas are to be
locked at all times.

3. To protect data information from hackers and other forms of sabotage, the following will be
implemented:

A. Firewall(s)

B. Anti-virus software and regular updates.
1. Servers


2. Microcomputers



C. Backups
1. Regular backups - full, incremental, etc.

2. Provide onsite and offsite storage of backups.


4. Monitoring by ITD staff of the computer servers and networks for any activity such as
hacking, theft of information, unauthorized access to systems and files, or any activity that
violates the integrity or interferes with the normal operation of the organization`s computer
system or the work of another user.

5. The implementation of the Organization`s data information disaster recovery/contingency plan
ensures adequate continuation of data information.

The plan should be:

A. Updated regularly.

B. Tested regularly.

6. All Organizations` personnel must adhere to the "CSU Computer and Information Code
of Conduct Policy.

7. All violations will be logged and modifications made to prevent future
violations.

8. Periodic assessment of firewalls, anti-virus software, and other security software and
devices by ITD. Recommendations for improvement must be given to the Chief
Information Officer of such organization.

9. Periodic assessment of all security violations and corrective actions taken.

10. All policies, plans, and rules must be made public and available for viewing for all

56
 
users of data information. Examples include but are not limited to the Web, paper copies
in computer laboratories and offices.

Below is an Information Security Policy for Universities as an example of organizations that deal
with both human and material resources:



Information Security Policy

Introduction
Storage of university data on computers and transfer across the network eases use and expands
our functionality. Commensurate with that expansion is the need for the appropriate security
measures. Security is not distinct from the functionality.

The Information Security Policy (Policy) recognizes that not all communities within the
University are the same and that data are used differently by various units within the
University. The principles of academic freedom and free exchange of ideas apply to this policy,
and this policy is not intended to limit or restrict those principles. These policies apply to all
units within the University.

Each unit within the University should apply this policy to meet their information security needs.
The Policy is written to incorporate current technological advances. The technology installed at
some units may limit immediate compliance with the Policy. Instances of non-compliance must
be reviewed and approved by the chief information officer or the equivalent officer(s).

Throughout the document the term must and should are used carefully. "Musts" are not
negotiable; "shoulds" are goals for the university. The terms data and information are used
interchangeably in the document.

The terms system and network administrator are used in this document. These terms are generic
and pertain to any person who performs those duties, not just those with that title or primary job
duty. Many students, faculty and staff member are the system administrators for their own
machines.

Purpose of this Policy
By information security we mean protection of the University's data, applications, networks, and
computer systems from unauthorized access, alteration, or destruction

The purpose of the information security policy is:
To establish a University-wide approach to information security.
To prescribe mechanisms that help identify and prevent the compromise of information
security and the misuse of University data, applications, networks and computer systems.

57
 
To define mechanisms that protect the reputation of the University and allow the
University to satisfy its legal and ethical responsibilities with regard to its networks' and
computer systems' connectivity to worldwide networks.
To prescribe an effective mechanism for responding to external complaints and queries
about real or perceived non-compliance with this policy.

Responsibility

The chair of the University Technology Management Team (UTMT) is responsible for
implementing the policy. UTMT, chaired by the Vice President for Administration, is a
coordinating group comprised of chief information officers from the three campuses, the
university administration, and the hospital.

UTMT must see to it that:
The information security policy is updated on a regular basis and published as
appropriate.
Appropriate training is provided to data owners, data custodians, network and system
administrators, and users.
Each unit appoints a person to be responsible for security implementation, incident
response, periodic user access reviews, and education of information security policies
including, for example, information about virus infection risks.

Members of UTMT are each responsible for establishing procedures to implement these policies
within their areas of responsibility, and for monitoring compliance.

General Policy

Required Policies
The University will use a layered approach of overlapping controls, monitoring and
authentication to ensure overall security of the University`s data, network and system
resources.
Security reviews of servers, firewalls, routers and monitoring platforms must be
conducted on a regular basis. These reviews must include monitoring access logs and
results of intrusion detection software, where it has been installed.

Recommended Practices
Vulnerability and risk assessment tests of external network connections should be
conducted on a regular basis. At a minimum, testing should be performed annually, but
the sensitivity of the information secured may require that these tests be done more often.
Education should be implemented to ensure that users understand data sensitivity issues,
levels of confidentiality, and the mechanisms to protect the data. This should be tailored
to the role of the individual, network administrator, system administrator, data custodian,
and users.
Violation of the Information Security Policy may result in disciplinary actions as
authorized by the University in accordance with University and campus disciplinary
policies, procedures, and codes of conduct.

58
 

Data Classification Policy

It is essential that all University data be protected. There are however gradations that require
different levels of security. All data should be reviewed on a periodic basis and classified
according to its use, sensitivity, and importance. We have specified three classes below:

High Risk: Information assets for which there are legal requirements for preventing disclosure or
financial penalties for disclosure. Data covered by federal and state legislation, such as FERPA,
HIPAA or the Data Protection Act, are in this class. Payroll, personnel, and financial information
are also in this class because of privacy requirements.

This policy recognizes that other data may need to be treated as high risk because it would cause
severe damage to the University if disclosed or modified. The data owner should make this
determination. It is the data owner`s responsibility to implement the necessary security
requirements.

Confidential: Data that would not expose the University to loss if disclosed, but that the data
owner feels should be protected to prevent unauthorized disclosure. It is the data owner`s
responsibility to implement the necessary security requirements.

Public: Information that may be freely disseminated

All information resources should be categorized and protected according to the requirements set
for each classification. The data classification and its corresponding level of protection should be
consistent when the data is replicated and as it flows through the University.
Data owners must determine the data classification and must ensure that the data
custodian is protecting the data in a manner appropriate to its classification.
No University-owned system or network subnet can have a connection to the Internet
without the means to protect the information on those systems consistent with its
confidentiality classification.
Data custodians are responsible for creating data repositories and data transfer procedures
which protect data in the manner appropriate to its classification.
High risk data must be encrypted during transmission over insecure channels.
Confidential data should be encrypted during transmission over insecure channels.
All appropriate data should be backed up, and the backups tested periodically, as part of a
documented, regular process.
Backups of data must be handled with the same security precautions as the data
itself. When systems are disposed of, or repurposed, data must be certified deleted or
disks destroyed consistent with industry best practices for the security level of the data.



Access Control Policy


59
 
Data must have sufficient granularity to allow the appropriate authorized access. There is
a delicate balance between protecting the data and permitting access to those who need to
use the data for authorized purposes. This balance should be recognized.
Where possible and financially feasible, more than one person must have full rights to
any university owned server storing or transmitting high risk data. The campuses and
University Administration (UA) must have a standard policy that applies to user access
rights. This will suffice for most instances. Data owners or custodians may enact more
restrictive policies for end-user access to their data.
Access to the network and servers and systems should be achieved by individual and
unique logins, and should require authentication. Authentication includes the use of
passwords, smart cards, biometrics, or other recognized forms of authentication.
As stated in the current campus policies on appropriate and acceptable use, users must
not share usernames and passwords, nor should they be written down or recorded in
unencrypted electronic files or documents. When limited access to university-related
documents or files is required specifically and solely for the proper operation of
University units and where available technical alternatives are not feasible, exceptions are
allowed under an articulated unit policy that is available to all affected unit personnel.
Each such policy must be reviewed by the unit executive officer and submitted to the
CIO for approval. All users must secure their username or account, password, and system
access from unauthorized use.
All users of systems that contain high risk or confidential data must have a strong
password- the definition of which will be established and documented by UTMT after
consultation with the community. Empowered accounts, such as administrator, root or
supervisor accounts, must be changed frequently, consistent with guidelines established
by UTMT.
Passwords must not be placed in emails unless they have been encrypted.
Default passwords on all systems must be changed after installation. All administrator or
root accounts must be given a password that conforms to the password selection criteria
when a system is installed, rebuilt, or reconfigured.
Logins and passwords should not be coded into programs or queries unless they are
encrypted or otherwise secure.
Users are responsible for safe handling and storage of all University authentication
devices. Authentication tokens (such as a SecureID card) should not be stored with a
computer that will be used to access the University`s network or system resources. If an
authentication device is lost or stolen, the loss must be immediately reported to the
appropriate individual in the issuing unit so that the device can be disabled.
Terminated employee access must be reviewed and adjusted as found
necessary. Terminated employees should have their accounts disabled upon transfer or
termination. Since there could be delays in reporting changes in user responsibilities,
periodic user access reviews should be conducted by the unit security person.
Transferred employee access must be reviewed and adjusted as found necessary.
Monitoring must be implemented on all systems including recording logon attempts and
failures, successful logons and date and time of logon and logoff.
Activities performed as administrator or superuser must be logged where it is feasible to
do so.

60
 
Personnel who have administrative system access should use other less powerful
accounts for performing non-administrative tasks. There should be a documented
procedure for reviewing system logs.

Virus Prevention Policy

The willful introduction of computer viruses or disruptive/destructive programs into the
University environment is prohibited, and violators may be subject to prosecution.
All desktop systems that connect to the network must be protected with an approved,
licensed anti-virus software product that it is kept updated according to the vendor`s
recommendations.
All servers and workstations that connect to the network and that are vulnerable to virus
or worm attack must be protected with an approved, licensed anti-virus software product
that it is kept updated according to the vendor`s recommendations.
Headers of all incoming data including electronic mail must be scanned for viruses by the
email server where such products exist and are financially feasible to implement.
Outgoing electronic mail should be scanned where such capabilities exist.
Where feasible, system or network administrators should inform users when a virus has
been detected.
Virus scanning logs must be maintained whenever email is centrally scanned for viruses.

Intrusion Detection Policy
Intruder detection must be implemented on all servers and workstations containing data
classified as high risk.
Operating system and application software logging processes must be enabled on all host
and server systems. Where possible, alarm and alert functions, as well as logging and
monitoring systems must be enabled.
Server, firewall, and critical system logs should be reviewed frequently. Where possible,
automated review should be enabled and alerts should be transmitted to the administrator
when a serious security intrusion is detected.
Intrusion tools should be installed where appropriate and checked on a regular basis.

Internet Security Policy
All connections to the Internet must go through a properly secured connection point to
ensure the network is protected when the data is classified high risk.
All connections to the Internet should go through a properly secured connection point to
ensure the network is protected when the data is classified confidential.

System Security Policy
All systems connected to the Internet should have a vendor supported version of the
operating system installed.
All systems connected to the Internet must be current with security patches.
System integrity checks of host and server systems housing high risk University data
should be performed.
Acceptable Use Policy

61
 
Each Campus and UA must have a policy on appropriate and acceptable use that includes these
requirements:
University computer resources must be used in a manner that complies with University
policies and State and Federal laws and regulations. It is against University policy to
install or run software requiring a license on any University computer without a valid
license.
Use of the University's computing and networking infrastructure by University
employees unrelated to their University positions must be limited in both time and
resources and must not interfere in any way with University functions or the employee's
duties. It is the responsibility of employees to consult their supervisors, if they have any
questions in this respect.
Uses that interfere with the proper functioning or the ability of others to make use of the
University's networks, computer systems, applications and data resources are not
permitted.
Use of University computer resources for personal profit is not permitted except as
addressed under other University policies.
Decryption of passwords is not permitted, except by authorized staff performing security
reviews or investigations. Use of network sniffers shall be restricted to system
administrators who must use such tools to solve network problems. Auditors or security
officers in the performance of their duties may also use them. They must not be used to
monitor or track any individual`s network activity except under special authorization as
defined by campus policy that protects the privacy of information in electronic form.

Exceptions

In certain cases, compliance with specific policy requirements may not be immediately possible.
Reasons include, but are not limited to, the following:
Required commercial or other software in use is not currently able to support the required
features;
Legacy systems are in use which do not comply, but near-term future systems will, and
are planned for;
Costs for reasonable compliance are disproportionate relative to the potential damage.
In such cases, units must develop a written explanation of the compliance issue and a plan for
coming into compliance with the University's Information Security Policy in a reasonable
amount of time. Explanations and plans must be submitted to the campus CIO or the equivalent
officer(s).


June 14, 2004: Approved by Senate of Urbana-Champaign Campus

Date Revised: July 22, 2004
Date Issued: April 8, 2003
Issued by: Office of the Chief Information Officer
Approved by: Office of the Provost and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs
Use of University Premises, Facilities and Computing Infrastructure: Section VIII/1.2

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Increased security implications of the 1998 Data Protection Act

Scope And Security Principles
At the heart of the legislation is a set of eight principles. Good information security practice is
implied in all eight, but explicitly in Principle 7, which relates to the prevention of unauthorized
or unlawful processing, and of accidental loss or damage to data. It requires that organizational
as well as technical means be used to protect personal information. It also requires that a security
regime must be technologically up to date. All organizations have to comply with the eight
principles.

Records

The 1998 Data Protection Act applies to computerized records, as well as to certain manual
records involving personal information.

Notification
If you register under the Data Protection Act 1998, you will be asked to fill in a security
statement to help the Information Commissioner decide whether you are likely to satisfy the
requirements of Principle 7 of the Act. 04 ISO/IEC 17799 is the international standard for
information security management. It provides best practice across a wide range of business
requirements.
Its companion standard, BS 7799 Part 2, specifies an Information Security Management System
(ISMS). This can help your business International and British Standards on Information

Security Management develop, implement and maintain effective information security ­ it is
effectively a framework for following the best practice in ISO/IEC 17799. ISO/IEC 17799 and
BS 7799 apply to all information regardless of where it is located and processed, or how it
is stored.

The standards outline a number of key principles:

· The use of risk assessment ­ identifying and evaluating risks, and specifying appropriate
security controls to help minimize loss or damage associated with these risks

· Periodic reviews of security and controls ­ this accounts for any changes that have taken place
in your business, as well as identifying new threats and vulnerabilities

· Taking steps to implement information security ­ some are essential from a legislative point
of view (such as data protection, privacy of personal information and safeguarding
organizational
records) whilst others are best practice recommendations (such as business continuity
management, and information security awareness and training).

To implement an ISMS, you will need to follow four steps:



63
 

Step 1: Design the ISMS
At this stage, you would determine your policy and objectives regarding information security,
assess your security risks, evaluate various ways of handling these risks, and select controls from
the ISO/IEC 17799 standard that reduce risks. Remember to compare the cost of risk control
against the value of the information and other risks to your business.

Step 2: Implement the ISMS
Put the selected controls in place to manage risks. This would involve setting up procedures and
instructions for staff, raising awareness through training, assigning roles and responsibilities,
and implementing any new systems.

Step 3: Monitor and review the ISMS
This will help you ensure that the ISMS continues to manage the risks to your business data. This
includes monitoring how effective the controls are in reducing the risks, reassessing the risks
taking account of any changes to the business, and reviewing policies and procedures.
Step 4: Improve the ISMS Maintain your system by improving existing controls, as well as
putting into practice new controls.

Traditional approaches to data security simply don`t mitigate today`s data risk. Over the years,
companies have invested millions in perimeter defense systems and application security systems
but despite these necessary technologies there remains a gap in data security. This gap is created
by a lack of visibility into and understanding of what users are actually doing with critical data.

I believe that Information and people are probably the most important business assets in any
organization. The 1998 Data Protection Act came into force on 1 March 2000 and means one is
obliged to ensure that information held about people is adequately protected. The Data Protection
Act concerns personal data, i.e. information about living, identifiable individuals (data
subjects`) and details important principles for the security of such information.

Businesses have to be open about their use of personal data, and follow sound and proper
practices in how they treat it. By implementing good information security practice, businesses
are better equipped to keep their information accurate and up to date. They can also ensure it
is accessed by the right people, and in a secured way. If the security of a business` information is
compromised, it can cost such business a great deal ­ financially and in terms of reputation.

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References

Allen, Julia H. (2001). The CERT Guide to System and Network Security Practices. Boston, MA:
Addison-Wesley.

BTEC (2005). Higher National in Computing. Pearson Custom Publishing: UK.

Colin Ritchie (2004). Relational Databases Principles. Thomson: London

David Brown (1997). Object-Oriented Analysis. John Wiley & Sons Inc.: USA.

Dr. Dobb`s Journal (2000). Java.

Godoy, Max B. (2004). A Segurança da Informação e Sua Importância para o Sucesso das
Organizações - Information Security and this Importance for de Organizations Success. Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil: Kirios Graf. and Editors - RJ Brazil.

Howard Anderson, Sharon Yull, & Bruce Hellingsworth (2004). Higher National Computing.
Elsevier: Oxford.

IMIS Journal (1998). IT Security ­ Formulating a policy.

Krutz, Ronald L.; Russell Dean Vines (2003). The CISSP Prep Guide, Gold Edition, Indianapolis, IN:
Wiley.

Layton, Timothy P. (2007). Information Security: Design, Implementation, Measurement, and
Compliance. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach publications.

McNab, Chris (2004). Network Security Assessment. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly.

Peltier, Thomas R. (2001). Information Security Risk Analysis. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach
publications.

Peltier, Thomas R. (2002). Information Security Policies, Procedures, and Standards: guidelines for
effective information security management. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach publications.
Terence Driscoll and Bob Dolden (1997). Computer Studies and Information Technology. Macmillan
education Ltd: London and Oxford.

White, Gregory (2003). All-in-one Security+ Certification Exam Guide. Emeryville, CA: McGraw-
Hill/Osborne. 0-07-222633-1.

Wikipedia

www.google.com



65
 
Appendices

Data security: is the means of ensuring that data is kept safe from corruption and that access to it is
suitably controlled. Thus data security helps to ensure privacy. It also helps in protecting personal data.
In the UK, the Data Protection Act is used to ensure that personal data is accessible to those whom it
concerns, and provides redress to individuals if there are inaccuracies. This is particularly important to
ensure individuals are treated fairly, for example for credit checking purposes. The Data Protection Act
states that only individuals and companies with legitimate and lawful reasons can process personal
information and cannot be shared.

The International Standard ISO/IEC 17799 covers data security under the topic of information security,
and one of its cardinal principles is that all stored information, i.e. data, should be owned so that it is
clear whose responsibility it is to protect and control access to that data.
Data corruption refers to errors in computer data that occur during transmission or retrieval,
introducing unintended changes to the original data. Computer storage and transmission systems use a
number of measures to provide data integrity, the lack of errors.
Data corruption during transmission has a variety of causes. Interruption of data transmission causes
information loss. Environmental conditions can interfere with data transmission, especially when
dealing with wireless transmission methods. Heavy clouds can block satellite transmissions. Wireless
networks are susceptible to interference from devices such as microwave ovens.
Data loss during storage has two broad causes: hardware and software failure. Head crashes and
general wear and tear of media fall into the former category, while software failure typically occurs
due to bugs in the code.

When data corruption behaves as a Poisson process, where each bit of data has an independently low
probability of being changed, data corruption can generally be detected by the use of checksums, and
can often be corrected by the use of error correcting codes.
If an uncorrectable data corruption is detected, procedures such as automatic retransmission or
restoration from backups can be applied. RAID disk arrays, store and evaluate parity bits for data
across a set of hard disks and can reconstruct corrupted data upon of the failure of a single disk.
If appropriate mechanisms are employed to detect and remedy data corruption, data integrity can be
maintained. This is particularly important in banking, where an undetected error can drastically affect
an account balance, and in the use of encrypted or compressed data, where a small error can make an
extensive dataset unusable.

Data privacy
Data privacy refers to the evolving relationship between technology and the legal right to, or public
expectation of privacy in the collection and sharing of data.
Privacy concerns exist wherever uniquely identifiable data relating to a person or persons are collected
and stored, in digital form or otherwise. Improper or non-existent disclosure control can be the root
cause for privacy issues. The most common sources of data privacy issues are:
(a) Health information
(b) Criminal justice
(c) Financial information
(d) Genetic information
(e) Location information

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The challenge in data privacy is to share data while protecting personally identifiable information.
Consider the example of health data which are collected from hospitals in a district; it is standard
practice to share this only in the aggregate. The idea of sharing the data in the aggregate is to ensure
that only non-identifiable data are shared.
The legal protection of the right to privacy in general and of data privacy in particular varies greatly
around the world.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states in its article 12 that:
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence,
or to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against
such interference or attacks.

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Glossary of Terms
Information Security Guidelines
An Information Security Guidelines is a suggested action or recommendation to address an area of the
Information Security Policy. A security guideline is not a mandatory action, and no disciplinary action
should result from non adoption. However, Information Security Guidelines are considered Best
Practice and should be implemented whenever possible.
A guideline typically uses works like "should" or "may" in the definition. Guidelines are usually
written for a particular environment and are used to help guide users' actions. For example, "all
successful logins should be logged and monitored." A guideline may apply to management,
administrators, end users, or a specific group within the organization.
Information Security Guidelines will usually supplement the Procedures Manuals with their adoption
encouraged and promoted rather than enforced.
Information Security Incident
An Information Security incident is an event which appears to be a breach of the organization`s
Information Security safeguards. It is important to respond calmly and to follow a logical procedure,
first to prevent the breach from continuing, if possible, and second, to inform the appropriate person(s)
within the organization; this usually includes the appointed Security Officer.
N.B. Where a member of staff fails to observe Information Security procedures; this is not, of itself, an
Information Security incident. However, depending on the risk of the incident, disciplinary and/or
improved procedures may be required.
Information Security Plan
The Information Security plan complements the IT Plan in so far as it documents, budgets and
resources the upgrades to hardware, software, training and procedures, in relation to Information
Security.
The driving force behind the Information Security Plan will be the Security Officer with the executive
sponsor likely to be the Chief Information Officer, or the Chief Executive Officer / Managing Director.
Information Security Policy
Information Security Policy is an organizational document usually ratified by senior management and
distributed throughout an organization to anyone with access rights to the organization`s IT systems or
information resources.
The Information Security Policy aims to reduce the risk of, and minimize the effect (or cost) of,
security incidents. It establishes the ground rules under which the organization should operate its

68
 
information systems. The formation of the Information Security Policy will be driven by many factors,
a key one of which is risk. How much risk is the organization willing and able to take?
The individual Information Security Policies should each be observed by personnel and contractors
alike. Some policies will be observed only by persons with a specific job function, e.g. the System
Administrator; other Policies will be complied with by all members of staff.
Compliance with the organization`s Information Security Policy should be an incorporated with both
the Terms and Conditions of Employment and also their Job Description.
Information Security Risk Assessment
An Information Security Risk Assessment is an initiative which identifies:-
1.
the nature and value of the Information Assets or Business Assets
2.
the threats against those assets, both internal and external
3.
the likelihood of those threats occurring
4.
the impact upon the organization.
Risk is defined as a danger, possibility of loss or injury; and the degree of probability of such
loss. Before introducing Information Security safeguards, you must be aware of the dangers to
which you are exposed, the risks and likelihood of such events taking place, and the estimated
impact upon your organization were each to actually occur.
In order to determine the overall level of Information Security safeguards required, you should
consider performing a comprehensive Information Security Risk Assessment.
Information Systems
The computer systems and information sources used by an organization to support its day to day
operations.
Information User
An Information User is the person responsible for viewing / amending / updating the content of
the information assets. This can be any user of the information in the inventory created by the
Information Owner.
Information Warfare / Infowar
Also Cyberwar and Netwar. Infowar is the use of information and information systems as
weapons in a conflict in which the information and information systems themselves are the
targets.


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Infowar has been divided into three classes;-
1.
Individual Privacy
2.
Industrial and Economic Espionage
3.
Global information warfare, i.e. Nation State versus Nation State.
Most organizations will not need to be concerned over classes I and III, but clearly Class II is
relevant to any organization wishing to protect its confidential information.

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