AIU celebrated its 2013 Graduation Ceremony on November 7th, in Miami, Florida. It is our pleasure to invite you to relive this great event which you can watch online through the following link:

At AIU we are very proud of our graduated students from more than 50 countries who have shown great effort, talent and dedication.


António S. dos Santos Pereira
Melquisedec Guerra Moreno
Political Science
Anthony Kwaku Sarpong
Roli Mittal Jalan
English Literature
João Maria Funzi Chimpolo
Business Administration
Desiderio Mora Bustos
International Business
Costa Rica
Bernice Anowa Welbeck
Business Administration
Velda Mary Helen James
Netherlands Antilles
José Cláudio Zeferino
Gerard Kakala Kisimba
John Parker Yanney
Business Administration
Edouard Jacotin
Environmental Science
Yanai Valdes Lopez
Library Science
Francisco Antonio Almonte
Dominican Republic
Michael Prah
Jany Mary Jarquín Mejía
Rural Sociology
F.A.M Badiuzzaman
Legal Studies
Marcial Figuereo Rosado
Dominican Republic
Stephen Ankamah-Lomotey
Health Care Administration
Godwin Ununotovo Adolor
Gail C. Evans Seed
International Business
Yolanda Escotto
Clinical Psychology
Dominican Republic
Guillermo E. Matta Ovalle
Nwakoby C. Namchukwuma
Business Management
Samuel Candundo
Jaime Ruiz Nicolalde
José Enrique Porras Rottmann
Hospitality Management
Samuel Olubode Akintayo
Business Management
Dennis Nyameca Onyama
Business Administration
Jóse V. Chang Goméz
Environmental Sciences
Roberto A. Caicedo Solis
Yayok Paul Kanwai
Project Management
Ndengbe Martin Flaubert
Information Technology
Maria M. Arguello Arteaga
Eating Disorders
Maria del Pilar Reyes Arguijo
Legal Studies
Omale Joseph Amedu
International Relations
Jania R. Valdivia Henríquez
Human Resources
Pablo G Páez
Business Management
(Post-doctorate) Ecuador
Victor Abel Escobar
Eunice E. Mason
Federico Orjuela Moreno
Strategic Planning
Mario A. Mejía Cáceres
Business Administration
El Salvador
Faraj Mohamed Omeish
Business Administration
Teorae Kabure
Maritime Studies
Papua New Guinea
Jahir Sandoval Jaramillo
Public Policy
Ricardo A. Velásquez Zepeda
Business Administration
El Salvador
Sumathi Sangaran
Hernan Picon Chaves
Jorge Alirio Ochoa Lancheros
Business Administration
Kibaalya William George Nali
Regional Development
Francisco Orduña Correa
Environmental Science
Marcos I. Gomez Huaman
International Business
José Ma. Gutiérrez Londoño
Zerai Abraham
Information System
José Manuel Elija Guamba
Environmental Science
Roberto Cumpen Vidaurre


Interpersonal Skills

An in-depth glimpse into the various facet of the use of Interpersonal Skills in an organization, everyday one on one communication, overall basic setting and communication environment.

Before any definition can be formulated there is always an underlying mystery concerning the connotation of any particular word or phrase. The understanding for the comprehension of the meaning of interpersonal skills is no different. What does interpersonal skills mean? Or how do we as individuals apply it to our every day life? Through out this paper I will explore the fundamental uses and the impact of this particular skill and emphasize on its importance in our daily activities. Wikipedia, an online dictionary, explains: Interpersonal skills “refer to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term ‘interpersonal skills’ is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person’s ability to operate within business organizations through social communication and interactions. As an illustration, it is generally understood that communicating respect for other people or professionals within the workplace will enable one to reduce conflict and increase participation or assistance in obtaining information or completing tasks.”

“For instance, in order to interrupt someone that is currently preoccupied with a task in order to obtain information needed immediately, it is recommended that a professional utilize a deferential approach with language such as, “Excuse me, are you busy? I have an urgent matter to discuss with you if you have the time at the moment.” This allows the receiving professional to make their own judgment regarding the importance of their current task versus entering into a discussion with their colleague. While it is generally understood that interrupting someone with an “urgent” request will often take priority, allowing the receiver of the message to independently judges the request and agrees to further interaction will likely result in a higher quality interaction. Following these kinds of heuristics to achieve better professional results generally results in a professional in being ranked as one with ‘Good Interpersonal Skills’. Often these evaluations occur in formal and informal settings.”

Individuals interacting with each other basically sum up the whole aspect of interpersonal skills as one on one communication. As time goes by we tend to improve our interpersonal skills and the manner in which we interact with our peers. Certain individuals in our social circle have somehow managed to master the art of communication. These individuals tend to connect with other people effortlessly while some of us struggle to form a complete sentence. The truth is some individuals are simply blessed with natural “people skills”, and the gift of gab. They never seem to feel out of place.

One of the articles that I read from

Impact Factory (Interpersonal Skills Training) which allows me to gain more insight into interpersonal skills states as follows: “Strangely interpersonal skills are one of those things that you’ll only really notice when someone doesn’t have them! And you’ll certainly notice it when yours have deserted you. That’ll be the moments when you get wrongfooted, tongue-tied, or embarrassed. When you’re in new or awkward situations or when you imagine that there are rules of behavior that everyone else seems to know but you. It is quite possible, with a little effort, for everyone to develop really effective interpersonal skills. You can learn how to deal with the feelings that arise in difficult situations instead of being overwhelmed by them. Nobody lives a feeling free life. Everyone has moments where they feel less than capable.” There are different methods by which one can develop his/her interpersonal skills some of which includes the elements shown in figure 1. One of the most important elements in any leadership position is having the ability to communicate with your employees and subordinates. An effective manager would posses all the necessary skills required to manage properly, some of which would include interpersonal skills, technical skills and communication skills among many others. Most companies or business organizations have realized the high tech methods of communication and they are aware that with technology rapidly influencing their work place interaction among employees seems to be non-existent. The question is why would you reach over to talk to Becky when you can simply send her an email? Every aspect of business is becoming electronic and lines of communication are diminishing.

In the article entitled 21st Century Skills the writers addressed certain aspects in relation to organizational environment and the impact of technology in reference to interpersonal skills. “Many have wondered how it happens that persons with high IQs don’t always land the top jobs. The answer often lies in interpersonal skills. In fact, emotional intelligence –the capacity to manage emotions well– is twice as important to success in the workplace as IQ and expertise (Goleman, 1998). The teamwork necessitated by the complexity of today’s workplace has placed increased importance on a worker’s interpersonal skills. Such teaming often brings together individuals from diverse groups who may not share common norms, values, or vocabularies, but who do offer unique expertise, insights, and perspectives. Interpersonal skills in the Digital Age are somewhat more complex than they have been in the past. E-mail, voice mail, audio conferencing and videoconferencing, and the myriad of other technologies that enable individuals to communicate with each other not only increase the ways in which individuals can interact, but also require a heightened sensitivity to the nuances of interpersonal interactions. This idea is particularly true in the worlds of virtual learning and virtual communication, where one cannot yet use hand gestures, facial expressions, or body language to fully express ideas. The challenge to students is to perfect interpersonal skills not only in face-to-face interactions but in virtual interactions as well.”

Having Interpersonal Skills is a fundamental part of any business establishment. Many establishments try their best to improve their employee’s communication skills some of them are tremendously successful while other attempts failed miserable. This article quoted in the next few lines were taken form Impact Factory and it describes certain sceneries in Interpersonal skills and the whole aspect of communication and Miss-communication: “Any work that tries to help people become better communicators, has to start from the view that miscommunication is normal. Just using the spoken word, look at the process that we go through to pass a simple idea from one person to another. First I have a thought, which I frame using my view of the world. I translate that thought into language; I then translate that language into a series of sound waves using my vocal cords. These sound waves travel through the air until they hit your eardrum, you then translate those sounds into recognizable symbols (words) which you interpret using a similar, but not identical language into an idea which you frame using your view of the world. That it happens at all is a miracle. That it often happens so poorly is hardly surprising. So you see if we start with the idea that miss-communication is normal, and then we stand a far greater chance of making communication work. The usual case is that most people assume that they make themselves clear and are easy to understand so if there’s a problem, it’s with the other guy, not us. Sort of like driving a car: we’re always the good, safe, careful driver; it’s the other guy who’s at fault. Given the fact that the act of communicating is such a complex procedure with all sorts of hidden traps to get you into trouble, it’s rather a miracle that communication happens at all! Think of how many times you’ve said, or heard others say: “But I thought you meant...” or “I assumed you were talking about...” or “No, you’ve completely misunderstood what I was saying.” These little phrases come out of our mouths daily. We’re so used to saying them we don’t think about the wider implications: that it sometimes requires really hard work to make ourselves clear and to get ourselves understood by others. Communicating when it really matters –with colleagues, at meetings, during disagreements, at negotiations– requires skill, thoughtfulness and an ability to take responsibility for others’ understanding. Communication is not something that should be left to chance.” Miss Communication can be damaging to any organization or any conversation held between two individuals. It’s always wise to ask questions and be informed of the conversation being held around you as the listener and also the one who on most occasions is required to give a feedback.

It has occurred to me that effective communication takes a lot of time and concentration. It is easy for anyone to carry on a conversation, but in the end it comes down to the person towhom they are addressing to channel the information in a proper manner so that the conversation makes sense to their ear. Lately I have found myself hearing bits and pieces of information. There was a time when nothing would get past me, but lately I have been having problems in listening to what others have to say. I also find myself unable to have a constructive conversation with anyone; I would stutter or mumble things that I never caught myself doing before. I am aware that the less I communicate with my peers the less my interpersonal skills develop, and to be quite honest I need interpersonal skills in my particular line of work. Being a recruiter takes a lot of work, being on the phone on a continuous basis is just part of my job. The main aspect of my job is explaining to potential students the benefits that my institution offers and why it would be beneficial for them to enroll at my college. However, with the absence of interpersonal skills I would have a difficult time in engaging my potential students in conversation and keep them interested in what we have to offer. Communication takes hard work and dedication and when executed correctly it could make a whole lot of difference in the sense of pass or fail or win or lose. In an article written by Dennis Rivers (The Seven Challenges) he indicated, “Because conversations are the bringing together of both persons contributions, when you initiate a positive change in your way of talking and listening, you can single-handedly begin to change the quality of all your conversations. The actions described in this work-book are seven examples of being the change you want to see.”

Challenge 1: Listen more carefully and responsively.

Challenge 2: Explain your conversational intent and invite consent.

Challenge 3: Express yourself more clearly and completely.

Challenge 4: Translate your complaints and criticisms into specific requests, and explain your requests.

Challenge 5: Ask questions more “open-ended” and more creatively.

Challenge 6: Express more appreciation.

Challenge 7:Make better communication an important part of your life.

Works Cited: Wikipedia;; “Understanding ‘People’ People,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 82, NO.6, June 2004; www.hbswk.; Rivers Dennis. The Seven Challenges;;

Slightly Mad

what others cannot. But at a cost: mood swings and difficulty comprehending social norms and expressing emotions. Is this what it takes to be a genius?

Had Sir Isaac Newton been alive today, he would have been a Harry Potter fan. He was fascinated by alchemy and the existence of a philosopher’s stone that could turn any metal into gold. Despite being grounded in the pure sciences and best known for devising the law of gravitation, Newton devoted a great deal of his time to alchemy and theology. His genius is unquestionable and his influence vast, but at school he was initially a poor student. Newton was introverted, insecure, depressive and as an adult became embroiled in vicious quarrels with several of his scientific peers. Could he have had a mental illness, and could this have contributed to his genius? Genius comes in all shapes and forms, from those with a creative bent in the arts –writers, painters and musicians– to those grounded in the sciences – physicists, mathematicians and philosophers. Geniuses are defined as individuals of high intellect who possess exceptional creativity and are capable of original thought. But they are also often obsessive, depressive, compulsive, introverted or manic. And are these behaviours within the normal spectrum –albeit occasionally at the extreme end– or do they indicate an underlying neurological malfunction that might be a factor in their genius?

THE PERCEIVED LINK between genius and mental illness isn’t just coincidence: it extends from observations made centuries ago. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle asked, “Why is it that all men who are outstanding in philosophy, poetry or the arts are melancholic?” More recently, 19th century Italian psychiatrist Cesare Lombroso theorised that a man of genius was essentially a degenerate whose madness was a form of evolutionary compensation for excessive intellectual development. Mental illness, by the very phrasing of the term, has long had negative connotations, and can be very destructive for the sufferer and for those around them. But things are not always black and white: having a mental illness can actually prove a boon. Affective disorders, including bipolar disorder –also known as manic depressive illness– are believed to have contributed to the creation of some of history’s most lauded poems, novels, artworks, discoveries and original ideas. More recently, a number of history’s most brilliant minds

have been retrospectively diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome –a high functioning form of autism characterised by narrow interests and ‘workaholism’. In fact, some researchers believe that these two types of mental illness might confer traits that are conducive to genius Academics and historians have trawled through diaries and biographies written about geniuses looking for ‘red flags’ –traits that allow them to diagnose a mental illness according to current criteria outlined in the psychiatrist’s bible, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. But diagnosing someone who is no longer alive is difficult since the evidence for one disorder or another may not be clear-cut. To augment their data, researchers look for biographical information about family members. On occasion this can reveal patterns of inherited traits or disorders that helps with the diagnosis.

NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH poets Lord Byron and Lord Alfred Tennyson both produced works of timeless genius –and both have a clear family history of mental health problems. Tennyson suffered from recurrent depression, as did four of his siblings.

A particularly bad time for Tennyson occurred in his early twenties, when the sudden and unexpected death of a good friend sent him into a deep depression.

The condition profoundly influenced his work; for the next nine years he didn’t publish, but wrote a number of poems expressing his grief. Tennyson also had a brother who spent most of his life in an asylum and it was this inherited madness he feared the most. Several of Byron’s relatives had violent tempers and mood swings, and some committed suicide –a tragically common outcome in those who suffer from bipolar disorder.

Byron first wrote about his melancholy as a schoolboy and as an adult spoke about suicide often enough to worry his wife and friends. He also experienced periods of frenzied behaviour during which he would spend money compulsively. Byron’s mathematically talented daughter, Ada Lovelace (best remembered for her descriptions of Charles Babbage’s analytical engine, one of the first mechanical computers, and for being the first to write a computer programme) appears to have inherited his ‘genius genes’, but also behavioural extremes. Convinced she had a sure-fire way of choosing the winners in a horse race, she once lost so much money that she had to pawn the family jewels.

BORN IN WARSAW in 1867 as Maria Sklodowska, Marie Curie is the only woman ever to have received two Nobel prizes. The first, in 1903, was jointly awarded to her husband for their work on radiation; the second was awarded in 1911 for her discovery of the elements radium and polonium, and for her isolation and study of radium. In 1935 Curie’s eldest daughter Irène, was also jointly awarded a Nobel Prize with her husband, in recognition of their “synthesis of new radioactive elements”. The elder Curie first suffered from a “nervous illness” at the age of 15, after graduating with honours, and as Valedictorian of her class, from high school. The illness left her feeling extremely lethargic and she spent a year recuperating in the Polish countryside. Some believe this bout of tiredness was the first sign of a depressive illness that was to re-emerge in adulthood. Russian authorities of the time did not allow women to attend university, so Curie was unable to pursue tertiary education in Warsaw. But by the age of 23, she had saved enough money to move to Paris to attend Sorbonne University. Marie’s single-minded determination to succeed meant she became completely absorbed in her studies and had little time for anything else. Three years later she not only had Masters degrees in both physics and maths, but she had graduated first and second respectively in her class of almost 2,000 students. A physics research scholarship enabled her to pursue a research career, and she moved to the Paris Municipal School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry to join the lab of Pierre Curie, whom she subsequently married.

Marie’s autobiographical notes reveal that she and her husband spent long days toiling in a makeshift laboratory in an old shed trying to isolate radium. Marie would lock herself in the lab to work for weeks on end until she collapsed from physical and mental exhaustion. THE CURIES HAD two daughters, but according to American writer and historian Barbara Goldsmith, author of Obsessive Genius: the Inner world of Marie Curie, such was Marie’s devotion to her research, that there were periods when she wouldn’t see her children for up to a year. In Marie’s autobiographical works she writes: “It can be easily understood that there was no place in our life for worldly relations”. The Curies’ Nobel Prize and subsequent fame was also a cause for lament: “The overturn of our voluntary isolation was a cause of real suffering for us and had all the effect of disaster. It was serious trouble brought into the organisation of our life.” Goldsmith was one of the first members of the public to obtain access to Marie’s workbooks and diaries, sixty years after they were sealed in the National Library of France. She consulted a number of psychiatrists to arrive at a diagnosis of bipolar disorder for Curie.

Michael Fitzgerald, an eminent psychiatrist at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, believes Curie’s personality traits could also be indicative of Asperger’s syndrome. He says Curie’s excessive drive and obsession with her research, as well as her aversion to socialising, are key signs of the disorder. ALBERT EINSTEIN HAS also been subject to scrutiny. Einstein was a loner as a child and didn’t speak until he was three, then he repeated sentences obsessively for several years. In adulthood he lacked grooming (note the wild crop of hair) and was reportedly lax about hygiene. These characteristics, among others, lead Fitzgerald to believe that Einstein had Asperger’s –a diagnosis also suggested by Oxford University’s Ioan James and the director of Cambridge University’s Autism Research Centre, Simon Baron-Cohen. However, others have suggested that Einstein had schizophrenia or dyslexia. Isaac Newton may also have suffered from Asperger’s. In his latest book, Genius Genes, Fitzgerald discusses Newton’s genius and “definitive” autistic characteristics, alluding to the autistic aggression Newton exhibited when he worked at the Royal Mint. Newton was in charge of sending counterfeiters to their death by hanging, which he apparently relished. Another sign of his Asperger’s, says Fitzgerald, was Newton’s belief in alchemy: his inability to separate fact from fiction. This contrasts sharply with his single-minded pursuit of mathematical proofs, at which he would work continuously, without eating, for several days.

Total immersion in one’s work is another key sign of Asperger’s, but again the case is not straightforward: other researchers think Newton’s symptoms were more indicative of bipolar disorder. The intense focus and desire for routine associated with Asperger’s doesn’t only suit academic or scientific professions, however. Fitzgerald also names a number of writers, philosophers, musicians and painters (including Beethoven and van Gogh) as probable Asperger’s sufferers. But again, things get complicated. Vincent van Gogh suffered from bouts of depression, a wild temper, spasms (possibly brought on by overindulging in absinthe) and psychotic episodes before committing suicide at the age of 37. Widely thought to have had bipolar, it has also been suggested he had schizophrenia or epilepsy. Similarly, Beethoven meets the diagnostic criteria for Asperger’s, but his traits are also compatible with a schizoid personality disorder or depression.

In fact, a number of mental illnesses have overlapping symptoms and associated behaviours, and some conditions could coexist with others. Schizoaffective disorder, for example, is characterised by mania and depression as well as psychosis (delusions, incoherent speech, hallucinations) or other attributes of schizophrenia. This overlap, combined with the difficulties in interpreting available data, makes a definitive retrospective diagnosis extremely difficult. THE DANGER IN ALL this speculation is that people will be labelled as mentally ill simply because of their talent and dedication. In his autobiography, The Double Helix, for example, the increasingly outspoken James Watson makes disparaging remarks about Rosalind Franklin –a researcher who made important, and often poorly acknowledged, contributions to our understanding of the structure of DNA. Watson suggests she suffered from Asperger’s syndrome, and insists the disorder is common among women who are talented at science. Clearly not all geniuses have a mental illness, and not all with a mental illness are geniuses. “Most manic depressives do not possess extraordinary imagination, and most accomplished artists do not suffer from recurring mood swings,” says Kay Redfield Jamison, a professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, U.S., and an expert on bipolar affective disorder. However, over the past few decades, numerous studies, including Jamison’s own, have suggested that creative and intelligent individuals are more likely to suffer from mental illness. Most have investigated the incidence of mood disorders in living artists who have achieved a certain degree of recognition. Collectively, the studies show that artists experience eight to 10 times the rate of depression, and 10 to 20 times the rate of manic depression and its milder form, cyclothymia, than the general population. BUT DOES THIS observed phenomenon extend to geniuses from other disciplines? One of the few studies to consider the psychopathology of scientists was carried out by the late Felix Post, a London hospital physician. Published in 1994 in the British Journal of Psychiatry, Post’s decade-long investigation “sought to determine the prevalence of various psychopathologies in outstandingly creative individuals”.

Using data extracted from their biographies, he assessed the mental health of scientists and inventors, thinkers and scholars, statesmen and national leaders, painters and sculptors, composers, novelists and playwrights. Among the 45 male scientists included in the study (women were “regretfully” excluded because of a dearth of data and knowledge that disease prevalence varies between the sexes), were such eminent names as Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Erwin Schrödinger, and Gregor Mendel –all of whom were found to have mild, marked or severe psychopathology.

The paper revealed that approximately one third of scientists, composers and artists had no psychopathology, whereas the same could only be said for a sixth of the artists and politicians. By far the most commonly affected were the writers: 88 per cent had a marked or severe psychopathology, with 72 per cent suffering from a depressive condition. A follow-up study of writers confirmed the finding, but went a step further by analysing the diagnoses assigned to particular sub-groups of writers: poets, prose fiction writers, and playwrights. It found a greater frequency of affective illnesses and alcoholism among prose writers and playwrights. Poets, however, had a higher incidence of bipolar disorder. The study makes fascinating reading, but as Raj Persaud, a professor for the public understanding of psychiatry and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital in London points out, the data set is biased. It includes only acknowledged geniuses, which he likens to an analysis of reported crime versus actual crime. “The other problem is that when biographers write about the characteristics of history’s intelligencia, there’s a tendency to unearth eccentricities because they are interesting and this can lead to an over diagnosis of mental illness.” “It’s also possible that people who are geniuses or who are highly creative deploy mental illness as an excuse for bad behaviour, when in fact they are just badly behaved,” he says. It may also be the case that in some literature pertaining to history’s brilliant minds, potential psychoses are overlooked.

WHILE MENTAL ILLNESS can be devastatingly destructive, the questions remain: would cancer radiotherapy have existed if not for the Curies’ obsessive research habits, would some of the most oft quoted prose of our time have been written if great poets like Tennyson and Byron were not affected by extreme moods, and would our current understanding of motion and gravity exist if not for Newton’s neurotic drive to understand the universe around us? How is mental illness linked with genius? Could it be the X-factor? Many suspect it is. Socrates believed a mental illness gave an already talented individual an edge. In Plato’s Phaedrus, Socrates’ second speech contains the phrase: “If a man comes to the door of poetry untouched by the madness of the muses, believing that technique alone will make him a good poet, he and his sane compositions never reach perfection, but are utterly eclipsed by the inspired madman”. And 19th century American poet Edgar Allan Poe, who is said to have had bipolar disorder, certainly believed his condition had a positive effect on his art: “Men have called me mad, but the question is not yet settled, whether madness is or is not the loftiest intelligence… [and] whether all that is profound, does not spring from disease of thought” Neil Cole of the Alfred Psychiatric Research Centre in Melbourne says that having a mental illness –in particular bipolar– affects creativity as well as the speed of work.> A bipolar sufferer himself, Cole has found that: “the word associations, puns, flight of ideas, that are an intrinsic part of bipolar disorder in its manic phase, and the reflective thoughts, ruminations and the stripping of life away to the bare essentials that are experienced during the depressive phase, in my view, considerably enhance the artist’s armoury of ideas.” In fact, Cole believes that genius hinges on eccentricity –that mental illness is the X-factor.

HE’S NOT ALONE. The late Hans Asperger, an Austrian paediatrician after whom Asperger’s syndrome is named, said that “it seems for success in science or art, a dash of autism is essential”. But how could this be beneficial? Baron-Cohen argues that people with autism spectrum disorders favour systems that change in predictable ways, and that they have problems with ambiguity or fiction and are strongly driven to discover the truth. Fitzgerald even believes that the genes that give rise to genius are the same as those that give rise to high-functioning autism. “Asperger’s might be a necessary ingredient of human creativity,” he says. “Perhaps even the crucial ingredient.” Others aren’t so sure. Persaud points out that to be recognised as genius an individual’s work has to be acknowledged and accepted by their peers, so geniuses aren’t just high-functioning intellectuals. “Recognised geniuses are those who have to interact in a positive way with society and therefore have to have a certain number of social skills.” These skills are often lacking in people with mental illnesses such as Asperger’s. Persaud also asks: if Asperger’s is linked to genius, how do we account for the large number of people with Asperger’s who aren’t geniuses?

He’s reluctant to totally dismiss the argument, however: “Mental health is a continuum –everyone lies somewhere within the spectrum– and there is a loose association between the capacity for original thought and mental health”. People at the extreme end are unlikely to produce work that is accepted as of genius nature, he explains. No doubt Sylvia Plath, who is believed to have had bipolar, would agree with him. She said: “When you are insane, you are busy being insane –all the time…When I was crazy, that’s all I was”. So, do you have to be nuts to be a genius? The answer is no, but it could help. As the late Harvard University psychologist William James noted, “When a superior intellect and a psychopathic temperament coalesce –as in the endless permutations and combinations of the human faculty, they are bound to coalesce often enough– in the same individual, we have the best possible condition for the kind of effective genius that gets into the biographical dictionaries.”

Education in Greece

In the city-states of ancient Greece, most education was private, except in Sparta. For example, in Athens, during the 5th and 4th century BC, aside from two years military training, the state played little part in schooling. Anyone could open a school and decide the curriculum.

Parents could choose a school offering the subjects they wanted their children to learn, at a monthly fee they could afford. Most parents, even the poor, sent their sons to schools for at least a few years, and if they could afford it from around the age of seven until fourteen, learning gymnastics (including athletics, sport and wrestling), music (including poetry, drama and history) and literacy. Girls rarely received formal education. At writing school, the youngest students learned the alphabet by song, then later by copying the shapes of letters with a stylus on a waxed wooden tablet. After some schooling, the sons of poor or middle-class families often learnt a trade by apprenticeship, whether with their father or another tradesman. By around 350 BC, it was common for children at schools in Athens to also study various arts such as drawing, painting, and sculpture. The richest students continued their education by studying with sophists, from whom they could learn subjects such as rhetoric, mathematics, geography, natural history, politics, and logic. Some of Athens’ greatest schools of higher education included the Lyceum (the so-called Peripatetic school founded by Aristotle of Stageira) and the Platonic Academy (founded by Plato of Athens). The education system of the wealthy ancient Greeks is also called Paideia.


Of all the teachers that history has known, Socrates was (in the words of his contemporaries) “the wisest, the most courageous and the most upright.” To him are traced back the diverse schools of philosophy, such as Platonism, Scepticism, Stoicism, Epicureanism, Cynicism. Very aptly, he is called the philosophers’ philosopher. Socrates was a brave soldier, a stone-cutter, sculptor; but above all he was a great teacher. Over four hundred years before Christ, Socrates roamed the streets of Athens with a shabby robe over his broad shoulders, conversing animatedly with young men, asking them one question after another. Intellectual giants of the time, such as Plato, Xenophon too were drawn by his charisma into fascinating arguments. Socrates was a born teacher with the knack of arousing an insatiable curiosity, and at the same time serving as a gadfly to the powers that be.

His teaching method of asking questions rankled many. One, Hippias, raged at Socrates’ elusiveness on the subject of justice: “By Zeus, you shall not hear my reply until you yourself declare what you think justice to be; for it is not enough that you laugh at others, question others, while you yourself are unwilling to give a reason to anybody and declare your opinion on any subject.” To such outbursts, Socrates replied simply: “The reproach which is often made against me that I ask questions of others and have not the wit to answer them myself is very just. The reason is that God compels me to be a midwife, but forbids me to bring forth.” This is the dialectical approach to teaching of which Socrates was the supreme master. It consists in asking questions, in finding the contradictions in the answers, in further questions to pinpoint the knowledge about the problem or theory or concept under discussion.

This is precisely the method of reasoning that is needed today, when we are confronted with the aweinspiring phenomenon of the explosion of knowledge and incessant barrage of propaganda by the mass media. It is difficult in such conditions to know the truth, especially in the social sciences, which serve as hand maidens to the vested interests. Socrates’ teaching method does not treat students as empty vessels to be filled with knowledge of facts, formulae and theorems. Rather, the teacher and students embark on a voyage of discovery. The teacher does not so much impart knowledge as elicit knowledge. He does not teach, rather he educates, which means to draw out. The teacher stretches the imagination of his students to the limits of their intellectual capacity. He helps the students to an intelligent grasp of the structure of the subject. The emphasis is on an intelligent application of formulae, definitions and facts rather than committing them to memory. The teacher provokes the students to creative thinking, acting as midwife to the ideas which have imperceptibly, unconsciously already matured in the minds of the students, sharing with them an exhilarating sense of discovery. Once a student begins to think on her/his own, she/he is sure to climb the highest peaks of her/his own capacity to learn and to know, and thus, she/he is no longer rudderless in the tumultuously changing world, because in any new situation she/he is wellequipped to find her/his way out.

One may say that simply asking questions is not a difficult job. Indeed, it is. To ask relevant questions is more difficult than answering them. You cannot ask questions, unless you have mastered the subject. It is only then that you can direct the torrent of questions to the goal that you have in mind. But be prepared to not only ask questions but to face questions from the students. Regrettably, teaching in our country is vitiated by authoritarianism which discourages questioning and initiative, and innovation. This must change. Socrates described his dialectic as the art of careful distinctions. Once a student develops a flair for subtle nuances under the barrage of questions, he is on the way to mastering the subject himself. To Socrates, knowledge is the highest virtue and all vice is ignorance. Without proper knowledge right action is impossible; with proper knowledge right action is inevitable. He argues that good is not good because the gods approve it; but the gods approve of it because it is good. By this shift in the emphasis, Socrates brought a revolution in ethics. Socrates’ concept of goodness is human and earthy. It is not general and abstract, but specific and concrete. Socrates did not just preach. He lived his ethics. The most powerful element of his charisma and influence among the Athenians was the example of his life and character. At one battle (at Potidea), he exhibited exemplary courage and saved the life of a young combatant. He gave up the laurels in favor of his young friend. He is said to have sculpted the three Graces that stood at the entrance to the Acropolis. He wore simply; refused to take remuneration for his service. He felt himself rich in his poverty, though he was no ascetic. He liked good company; allowed the rich to entertain him, but refused the gifts of magnates and kings. Nothing human was alien to him. Yet, he said, an unexamined life is not worth living.

In the Socratic scheme of things, a teacher preaches by the example of his life and conduct. He is not the candle-bearer; he is the candle itself, which burns for the students. He does not command; he persuades. He does not impose discipline from above; he inculcates discipline from within. He is a strict disciplinarian, but he begins by disciplining himself. He lives and dies for his principles. In case he has to drink hemlock for his views, he drinks it gladly as Socrates did (because he was condemned to death by poisoning by the authorities for worshipping new gods and corrupting the youth of Athens). To the greedy, selfish, opportunist and orthodox, Socrates was a challenge and will remain a challenge. A teacher, in the final analysis, is a gadfly to the establishment whether represented by orthodoxy or bureaucracy. He is a standing challenge to the society reveling in a cesspool of corruption and normalness.

No wonder throughout history universities have been petri dishes for dissent. This is the eternal legacy of Socrates. After the lapse of over two centuries Socrates remains relevant. The way he taught, lived and died is how a teacher should teach, live and die.

Downward spiral
Occupations that lose presence in today’s world

It is important to develop in the modern world and find the best choice of study. It is for this reason that we present an analysis of the occupations that are losing positions in the world according to the agency This does not mean that the work presented below are good or bad. Simply there is less opportunity to exercise in the world today.

Newspaper Reporter
Projected Job Growth: -6%

A job that has lost its luster dramatically over the past five years is expected to plummet even further by 2020. Paul Gillin says, “the print model is not sustainable. It will probably be gone within the next 10 years.”

Projected Job Growth: 4%

The inherent danger of working with heavy machinery in remote locations, coupled with low pay and poor job prospects, ranks lumberjack as one ofthe worst jobs of 2013.

Enlisted Military Personnel
Projected Job Growth: Varies

Enlisted military personnel is the most stressful job of 2013, as the men and women who volunteer in the Armed Forces are routinely placed in dangerous situations. And as the military draws down, fewer soldiers will be needed.

Actor / Actress
Projected Job Growth: -4%

Earning a full-time wage as an actor is one of the most difficult career paths one can pursue. Competition is fierce and earnings are typically paltry unless you are one of the lucky fractionof- a-few to break into the big time. The Screen Actors Guilde-American Federation of Trad and Radio Artists [SAG-AFTRA] has membership in excess of 160,000 –many of these are bit players at best. BLS estimates just 66,500 work in the field full-time.

Oil Rig Worker
Projected Job Growth: 8%

Working on an oil rig is risky. Few jobs are as isolated, requiring long hours spent on rigs often located at sea or in fields far from major cities. And while fracking is providing new opportunities in the field, sustainable energy’s growth will pose long-term sustainability challenges to the oil rig worker’s job market. Solar panel installation, for example, skyrocketed by 76% in 2012.

Dairy Farmer
Projected Job Growth: -8%

A dairy farmer provides a necessary service to food consumers, but the work is especially challenging. Larger farms streamline production, which forces smaller farms out of business and results in an anticipated 8% decline in the profession by 2020. Those remaining in the field are tasked with caring for dozens, hundreds, even thousands of animals. All those cows can make for a physically unpleasant and possibly dangerous work environment.

Meter Reader
Projected Job Growth: -10%

An isolated and often thankless career, meter reader is also one of the fastest declining professions due to advancements in remote reading.

Mail Carrier
Projected Job Growth: -26%

What people used to convey in a greeting card, they now express in a Facebook wall post. What was once penned on paper and sent through the mail is now transmitted instantaneously over the Internet. Technology is making a large portion of the mail carrier’s job obsolete.

Projected Job Growth: 18%

The construction market is taking a positive turn as the American economy improves, and as such roofers will have more job prospects in the coming years. But the work certainly isn’t for everyone. Long hours spent in the heat and cold of the elements tests ones mettle, and pay is often low.

Flight Attendant | Projected Job Growth: 0%

High stress, low pay and a shrinking job market all contribute to flight attendant’s inclusion among the worst jobs of 2013. The BLS projects virtually no change in job prospects, as airlines continue to consolidate and reduce staff.

Bachelor of Psychology

School of social and human studies

The Bachelor of Psychology (BS, BPsy) program objective is to help students develop an understanding of psychological theory, research skills, and psychological techniques necessary to be successful in the field. The Bachelor of Psychology (BS, BPsy) program is offered online via distance learning. After evaluating both academic record and life experience, AIU staff working in conjunction with Faculty and Academic Advisors will assist students in setting up a custom-made program, designed on an individual basis. This flexibility to meet student needs is seldom found in other distance learning programs. Our online program does not require all students to take the same subjects/courses, use the same books, or learning materials. Instead, the online Bachelor of Psychology (BS, BPsy) curriculum is designed individually by the student and academic advisor. It specifically addresses strengths and weaknesses with respect to market opportunities in the student’s major and intended field of work. Understanding that industry and geographic factors should influence the content of the curriculum instead of a standardized one-fits-all design is the hallmark of AIU’s unique approach to adult education. This philosophy addresses the dynamic and constantly changing environment of working professionals by helping adult students in reaching their professional and personal goals within the scope of the degree program.

Below is an example of the topics or areas you may develop and work on during your studies. By no means is it a complete or required list as AIU programs do not follow a standardized curriculum. It is meant solely as a reference point and example. Want to learn more about the curriculum design at AIU? Go ahead and visit our website, especially the Course and Curriculum section:

Core Courses and Topics

Cognitive Psychology
Lifespan Development
Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence
Adult Development & Aging
General Psychology
Methods of Experimental Psychology
Statistical Techniques
History and Systems of Psychology
Psychology of Personality
Social Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
Health Psychology
Psychology of Learning
Behavioral Neuroscience

Orientation Courses

• Communication & Investigation (Comprehensive Resume)
• Organization Theory (Portfolio)
• Experiential Learning (Autobiography)
• Academic Evaluation (Questionnaire)
• Academic Evaluation (Questionnaire)
• Fundament of Knowledge (Integration Chart)
• Fundamental Principles I (Philosophy of Education)
• Professional Evaluation (Self Evaluation Matrix)
• Development of Graduate Study (Guarantee of an Academic Degree

Research Project

Bachelor Thesis Project MBM300 Thesis Proposal MBM302 Bachelor Thesis (5,000 words)


Each Bachelor of Psychology graduate is encouraged to publish their research papers either online in the public domain or through professional journals and periodicals worldwide.

Job Description

Psychologists study the human mind and human behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in health service fields provide mental health care in hospitals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Psychologists employed in applied settings, such as business, industry, government, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conduct research, design organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology.

Skills for Success

Interested in people and human behavior • Able to solve problems • An inquisitive mind • Patience and perceptiveness • Good oral and written communication skills.