Author: Kholoud Elbaz
Title: Foundation of Education
Country: United States
Available for Download: Yes
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This subject is talking about the foundation of adult education and in my belief its not so hard to do cause the adult is not an alien comes from the space no at all he is a human like us the same blood and flesh but the main complicated part is to understand his mind , needs , and mentality even his character and more over is the circumstances that surrounded him and let him come again into the learning track .
So the main thing that we need to keep in our mind that adult in America is completely different than the adult in Egypt and the same the adult in Russia is completely different than in Africa and this is due to the political ,economical standard and circumstances u know Africa has a special political climate differ than the gulf or Egypt or even Japan but all of them are common in one thing is that they want to learn and they do want to restore what the surroundings has deprive them from. its the learning so in order to know do we begin the
Foundation of the adult education we need to know 5 points:
1-understanding the adult demand generally not in learning only
2-understanding the main motive and the surroundings around the adult
3-how to recruit the adult again on learning track
4-even the most modern technique n teaching adults
5-the main point that we all forget is the adult support after learning to begin his new life course .
and in this point I will display a specific point in this cause I do believe that this is the main issue for the adult need its support
First I will begin with the main point:
1-understanding the adult demand generally not in learning only
So when we are talking about the adult needs and demands in the whole life not learning we need to know main points which are:
2-best earning (good financial state
3-goodway in treating
4- Correcting the society way of looking towards them as illiterate or ignorant people or even nonsense cause they missed learning
those are the generally demand that the adult trying to achieve and this comes only by learning so those are his main needs in life they vary from country to another according to the circumstances as I said .
But the adult needs in learning it needs to focus on some main points which are:
Principles of Adult Learning
It's useful to understand some of the principles of adult learning. Meaning, what we know about how adults learn best. This may be a challenge, given the limited amount of time you have available for training, but you may find it helpful to keep some of the following guidelines in mind as you plan your presentation
.T Adults are autonomous and self-directed.
They need to be free to direct themselves. Effective teachers get participants. Perspectives on what topics to cover and let participants work on projects that reflect their interests.
T Adults are goal-oriented.
They are motivated to learn when they have a use for the knowledge or the skill being sought. Adults view learning as a means to an end, not an end in itself. Participants benefit and are more highly motivated when the trainer shows them how the class will help them reach their goals.
T Adults bring a great deal of experience
and knowledge to the classroom. Trainers need to connect learning to this knowledge experience base.
T Adults need to be able to integrate new ideas
with what they already know. This is particularly true if they are going to remember, and use, the new information. Information that conflicts sharply with what is already held to be true is integrated more slowly.
T Adults must see the reason for learning some-thing.
In other words, the learning has to be applicable to their work or other responsibility-ties. They will focus upon the aspects of lesson that are most useful to them in their work Instructors can motivate adults by telling them explicitly how the lesson will be
Useful to them on the job.
T Adults tend to prefer self-directed
and self-designed learning projects over group-learning experiences led by a professional.
T Adults report a need for application
Information as the primary motivation for beginning a learning project.
T Adults want their learning to be problem oriented personalized,
and accepting of their need for self-direction and personal responsibility.
T Respect the experience of the audience.
Increasing or maintaining one's sense of self-esteem is a strong secondary motivator for adults engaging in learning. Because adults tend to take errors personally and are more likely to let their mistakes affect their self-esteem, it's important to respond with respect to the opinions they offer and the questions they ask. Avoid asking adults to risk trying a new behavior in front of peers and colleagues. Acknowledge the wealth of experience and knowledge they bring to the learning situation.
T Create a comfortable space
. The learning environment needs to be physically and psychologically comfortable. Avoid long lectures, periods where learners must sit for a long time, and instruction that does not pro- space with few emotional distractions, where both dialogue and privacy are permitted, where learners can be themselves and where a feeling of mutual trust and respect between learners and instructors exists.
So the clever teacher should have those points in her mind towards the adult in order not to miss her track during learning adult.
2-understanding the main adult circumstances and motives all around the different areas and nationalities:
and this is another point be scored toward the teacher side is to make the adult feel that all the people around him understand his circumstances so if the teacher understand his areas demand so she will make the learning process more easily in performing .
1-adult in underdeveloped country like (central Africa- North Africa)
They are suffering from (bad climate –bad political states-bad educational climate--- EST.)
2- gulf area and far east like (emirates and Japan --- est. ) those countries they some of them are very rich country like emirates and gulf countries cause they are petrol countries so the standard of living is very high and the education there is more progressed than north Africa but in far east some of the country like Japan are very rich country with very high standard of living even there is no illiterate man and the education there by using the computer beside Japan present her experience in learning to all over the world beside there ultimate progress in electronics
But there is some of the countries in Far East like (china –Indonesia) they have bad standard of living.
3- central Europe( communist union ) Russia and those are suffering from the ex cold war and poverty beside every country has got its dependence so adult don’t have work there beside the low standard of living there
4-Europe And this considered to be the most progressed in the world that every adult dream to move there even for work or learn to have a better life there .
5- North America and Canada they are the same as Europe in progress
6-Latin America it’s the same as north Africa and some countries in far east but in some exception as Chile and Venezuela
So if the teacher understands the background that the adult come from so she will understand the main motive so she will fulfill the main needs and demands
B-The main adult motive towards learning is;
the main motive for most adults towards learning is improving the social ,educational , financial standard to coupe with surrounding so the adult try repay what had missed all of the years in his life that he miss the learning track .
Most of the adult feels that they need to get more information and knowledge to continue there life by getting a new job or getting a better degree to get more progress.
To over come some pf there problems like working or traveling or even passing a contest in writing skills!
I think as a studier this is the most important motive towards the adult to care about and run after.
Most of the adult learners are suffering bad circumstances that are why they miss the normal learning track age and most of them are suffering g from:
-financial problems (money shortage)
-sexual discrimination (boys learn – girls not)
-other social circumstances like (prison – home escape –homeless-orphanages and social caring association where the children lived there till adoption
- working in sexual works (prostitution or gays like in Asia).
In order to convince the adult about learning we need to know and discuss the main problems that hinders the adult from learning so to make and get the main back ground about the problem beside the adult so to recruit the adult we need
Adult learning: seven key areas for consideration
Understanding the needs of adult learners
Building relationships between service providers employers, government and the community
Promoting the value of adult learning
Assisting mature age transitions
Supporting learning in the workplace
Ensuring access to opportunities
Step 1 – Define the job that needs to be done
This means working out exactly what it is you need to be done and what tasks need carrying out rather than what role you want to fill. So the adult feel more comfort towards his needed tasks and duties.
Step 2 – Identify the skills and qualities needed
What skills and qualities would the ideal person for the job have; what sort of Person is you looking for to carry out the tasks you’ve identified?
Step 3 – Generate a list of who can do the job
Identify individuals who might be able to do the tasks you’ve identified and have the skills and qualities for which you are looking.
Step 4 – Target the best choice
Select from the list that best fits the description of your ideal person.
Step 5 – Ask someone to help you Decide who will ask them, how, and then do it!
Step 6 - offer support and welcome them into Scouting
Use the induction process to welcome them and make them feel part of Scouting
By outlining the training and support available to them.
4-Techniques in teaching:
So for the adult we need to know the techniques for the teaching so to convince the adult and attracting him again towards the learning track after taking in consideration his experience in life and the difference in age I mean different than the child.
so by using the distant learning ( on line ) it let all of the learners have the chance equally to learn without the problem of traveling or visa or even money problems
But the fees must be proper to the entire adult budget to get.
Curriculum and materials piloted the pilot consisted of two 4-6 week, mini-courses based on available products in fall of 1998. These courses were Finding a Job (Units 1-5) and Workplace Writing (Units13-15). Each unit consisted of one half-hour video,
One workbook chapter and one set of online activities (typically 2 to 3 individual lesson activities). Teachers attempted to cover one unit a week in the Finding a Job mini-course, and about one unit every week and a half for Workplace Writing. In addition,
Each teacher received one day of training by Literacy Link staff as well as a teacher’s guide. The teacher’s guide consisted of an overview of the project, introductory sections describing the navigation and structure of the Internet site, as well as brief before, during, and after lesson plan activity selections for each video, workbook chapter subsection, and online video activity.
Data was collected from both teachers and learners.
Data collection from learners consisted of a baseline questionnaire; weekly diary of time spent, readability of materials and clarity of tasks, and perceived learning; and an end-of-course survey including
Perceived learning and course rating. Data collection from teachers consisted of weekly email Questionnaires of teaching/learning issues and reflections on the teacher’s guide, and
An end-of-course survey on teaching/learning issues and recommendations for adoption.
Classroom observations were also conducted. All student online activities were collected
And saved as part of individual student records.
Classroom teachers selected for the pilot received one-day training by Literacy Link staff. The training was designed to be hands-on demonstrations of effective,
integrated classroom uses of the video, workbook, and online system. Teachers also received a visit from Literacy Link technical staff to help configure classroom technologies. Teachers had access to a technical support hotline at PBS for answering both technology and instructional questions.
So we after making the suitable program for adults as to learn them the designed curriculum especially for adults. so the adult will see a new trend in learning so as in some institutions they learn the adults some program as in nursing or in art or even in mechanics est. they got the adult in a real workshop or hospital or artistic workshop to get them in a real mode of learning beside the graphic show or the internet programs for learning them as in a practical and applied way like the real and normal life .
5-main support after learning the adult:
the main problem for the adult is not learning no but what after learning do he work to earn what he spend during his learning period ? or he will be like that in his home nothing to do ?
So this is the main question that passes through every adult mind. so most of the institutes learn the adult the courses and they let them work in the institutes or they offer them jobs in any where to be reconciled with what they have learned which pleased and encourage the adult to keep learning more and some of that institutes they make a contests for the adult to shoe people what will they do with there learning . so the adults needs to find a job vacancies to let them work and get benefit for them self and others so
they learn them nursing and offer for the brilliant adults job vacancies in some hospital for whom who get the nursing course in excellent grades.
1-In Australia and Canada there is institutes that offer jobs after they take a specific course in ( carpentering or even gallery making or car repairing --- etc then they offer jobs for thru brilliant adult students .
2-The same in United States and in England vein in most of the European countries.
But the main problem that theses institutes is not much there in Arabian countries .
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GREAT EDUCATORS HAVE ALWAYS KNOWN THAT LEARNING IS NOT SOMETHING THAT'S LIMITED TO THE CLASSROOMS, OR THAT SHOULD BE FORCIBLY UNDERTAKEN UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF TEACHERS.
"BEING DOES NOT MEAN ACCEPTING WHAT ONE IS; IT MEANS CREATING ANOTHER SELF THAT DOES NOT EXIST."