Author: Catherine Garcia
Theories & Models Of Leadership
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Theories & Models of Leadership
Leadership is a mysterious and elusive concept. What we read as
history is really the creation of myths. From an ordinary person,
creates a Napoleon or Gandhi, a Martin Luther King Jr. or Joan of
someone who acquires mythic status as a shaper of destiny.
We know the first steps of how this transformation occurs. Every
group naturally gives rise to leaders who guide their followers to a
goal. Yet some leaders fail while others succeed. Some are destroyed
flawed strategy or by the overwhelming stress of their role. And
crisis arises that calls for great leaders, there is a constant fear
that such a
figure will not appear, leaving the infamous "leadership vacuum"
become a chronic problem in modern society.
Leaders emerge from ordinary lives. In the deeper reality, a company
without vision, a school without heart or a nation struggling toward
level of freedom need to respond to hidden spiritual drives. Once
understood, leaders can be made who rise to the highest levels of
Any person, man or woman, can begin on the same road, not by being
leader but by looking inward.
Our souls offer the highest inspiration at every moment. We see
chaos, but the soul knows that order is more powerful than disorder.
we get that message, we fall back on old habits and stale answers to
challenges. We become stuck in pointless struggles and confusion.
someone who has setout to become a leader will succeed by cutting
the fog using fundamental spiritual rules. (1)
In any group members act out two basic themes in life (need and
response) if we could see ourselves clearly each of us would realize
every day there is:
Something we need, ranging from the primitive need for food and
shelter to the higher needs of self worth, love and spiritual
some response to fill that need, ranging from struggle and
creative discovery and divine inspiration. (2)
These two themes dominate our inner life. They override all external
goals, and they are not random.
Some basic models and Principles of leadership that seem to come
into play include the following:
1. Leaders and followers co-create each other. They form an
2. A leader is the symbolic soul of the group. The soul is an
expression of who we are.
3. Inner qualities determine results. The outcome of any situation
defined in advance by the vision that goes into solving it.
4. A leader must understand the hierarchy of needs.
5. Understanding need and response leads to success. The leader who
understands the hierarchy of need and response will succeed. (4)
Additional models of leadership include simple concepts such as:
1. look and listen
As we look further into models of leadership Bolman and Deals Theory
Four Frame Leadership styles apply: (5)
The four models are The Structural Frame, Human Resource Frame,
Political Frame, and Symbolic Frame.
The Structural Frame emphasizes efficiency and effectiveness.
leaders make the rational decision over personal and strive to
organizational goals and objectives through coordination and
value accountability and critical analyses.
The Human Resource Frame emphasizes the individual. Human resource
leaders value comaderie and harmony within the work environment, and
strive to achieve organizational goals through meaningful and
The Political Frame emphasizes meaning. Symbolic leaders value the
subjective and strive to achieve organizational goals through
The Symbolic Frame emphasizes meaning. Symbolic leaders value the
subjective and strive to achieve organizational goals through
Source Bolman and Deal (1992 1997). (6)
Additional models of leadership include the
Quinns competiting Values
Human Relations Model:
The motivator (commitment) Facilitator: Facilitators emphasize a
for morale and cohesion. They value interpersonal skills and strive
achieve organizational goals through process. Facilators are adept
mediation and problem solving. (alpha. 85)
Mentor: Mentors emphasize a concern for sensitivity and
They value the development of individuals and strive to achieve
organizational goals by being open and fair.
Internal Process Model: The Analyzer monitor: emphasize rules and
They value measurement and documentation, and strive to achieve
organizational goals through rational & technical analysis.
Coordinator: Coordinators emphasize structure and stability. They
reliability and continuity and strive to achieve the goals of the
through control evaluation.
Rational Goal Model The task master producer: Produces emphasize
and accomplishment. They value motivation and productivity and
achieve organizational goals through stimulating workers to
Director: Directors emphasize direction and planning. They value
clarification and decisiveness and strive to achieve organizational
through establishing and defining roles and tasks.
Innovator: Innovators emphasize expansion and adaptation. They value
image and reputation and strive to achieve organizational goals
influence and through creativity and vision. (8)
Strategic Leadership: The common usage of the term strategic is
the concept of strategy, simply a plan of action fro accomplishing a
A strategy is a plan whose aim is to link ends, ways, and means. The
difficult part involves the thinking required to develop the plan
uncertain, complex or volatile knowledge information, and data.
leadership entails making decisions across different cultures,
agendas, personalities, and desires. It requires the devising of
plans that are
feasible, desirable, and acceptable to one's organizations and
whether joint integrating or multi-national. Strategic leadership
ability to make sound reasoned decisions specifically consequential
decisions with grave implications. Since4 the aim of strategy is to
ways, and means, the aim of strategic leadership is to determine the
choose the best ways, and apply the most effective means. The
the plan; strategic leadership is to determine the ends, choose the
and apply the most effective means. The strategy is the plan.
leadership is the thinking and decision making required to develop
the plan. Skills for leading at the strategic level are more complex
for leading at the operational levels, with skills for leading at
Strategic leaders when considering the international environment
explore the context specifically the history, culture, religion,
politics, and foreign security. Who are our allies? Do we have any
in place, or do we need to build consensus. What resources are
There are components that make-up the strategic environment:
Nature of Strategic Environment:
The strategic leadership environment differs from the climate at
of leadership. We should view the nature of this both broadly
consequential decisions and changes in performance requirements.
By nature, strategic leadership requires heavy decision making. All
have consequences. but in the strategic context they take on a
character specifically they are aimed for the long term. (10)
The First Ladies' Character - A case study on Presidential Spouses
Why concern ourselves with the character of first ladies? It should
remembered that spouses of presidents have fulfilled a variety of
and politically significant roles including: Chairing presidential
testifying before congress; championing critical issues; supervising
restorations of the White House; participating as key players in
campaigns; and most have served as a trusted political confidante to
The First lady has emerged as a powerful institution in the White
owe complete with an office, staff and financial resources. The size
prominence, and scope of functions associated with her office often
that of even the president's most senior aides. Moreover, her
manifest itself in ways not easily measurable or typically
scholars. For instance, it is hard to assess the extent of her
the scenes as the wife of the president. But, it cannot be denied
spousal relationship has the potential to impact presidential
in a way much more profound than the influence wielded by even the
senior White House Advisor.
The First Lady brings to the study of professional decision making a
access and influence beyond that of any staffer or cabinet member
understanding of not only the president's deepest personal character
but of his political agenda, ideology, and career is second to none.
on the first ladyship has chronicled the social and political
wields within and beyond the White House and
has made a case for the
study of the office. (11) Indeed, it would seem incumbent upon
scholars to consider the character of the person closet to the
In spite of a history of contributions to the presidency, serious
the first ladies is a relatively recent phenomenon. Prior to the
discussion of the first ladies was social in nature, focusing on
as her marriage and choice of inaugural gown. Little serious
the spouse of the president existed and the first lady was largely
mainstream scholarship.(12) By the late eighties, however, scholars
approach the topic in a more systematic and serious manner. Books by
Gatin (1990 & 1991) ushered in a new way of looking at first ladies.
dawn of a new century finds scholarship on first ladies slowly
acceptance as a sub-field of presidential studies. (13)
Abraham Lincoln suggested that the president "appeals to the better
within us" and Franklin D. Roosevelt saw his office as a place of
As has so often been stated, even the presidents see the office as
institution suited for moral leadership and one that assumes the
the individual occupying the oval office.
President's character remains a key issue in presidential campaigns,
especially in 1992, 1996, and 2000 campaigns. Scholars have followed
devoting attention to presidential character with a flurry of books
on the topic. The fall 1998 issue of the presidential studies
highlighted this trend in a special issue on
"The Clinton Presidency in
Crisis." With several articles focused on the president's character.
Two advocates of the study of presidential character and their wives
and George (15) feel it is important to consider character because
impact on policymaking and political outcomes, and state that a
criterion is needed in assessing character. But they caution that
developing and applying this broad criterion are difficult. This is
Cronian and Genovese, who maintain that the relationship of
character to a
president's performance as well as the character of their wives
Assumptions have been made attempting to define and assess
Betty Glad maintains that there are especially two differing
the matter. The one approach, as Stephen Carter suggests, the
examining his or her moral virtue, making it known to the public,
on it in a consistent and integrated manner. On the other hand,
Niehbur argues that virtues vary according to the realm in which one
oneself. Such an approach accepts, for instance that there is a
between public and private virtues.
So how is character defined and how measurable is the character of
lady in relation to the president his performance and overall
will be the judge.
Careers unfold in wonderful and unanticipated ways allowing our
gifts to be
well used. But there is a condition that I have found along with
noted executives: the flow is smooth only when we focus on service
others and forget ambition.
The inner joy associated with creative work is said to be where true
motivation lies. Self interest and moving ahead for financial gain
bring true joy.
Truly important contributions do not come from ambition or
Instead, they flow from "gentle callings" to service that arrived
Preparing is always necessary but the important stream of teaching
every leadership action that matters has to come by way of
The leadership models and theories that I have presented in this
both the inner and outer sides of true leadership.
It is my utmost belief that leaders lead from who they are.
and will ultimately shape the followers direction of the business.
Many say that leadership can be learned. I disagree. You need to be
with it. Distinctly in studies it has been proven that leaders
immerges even in
the toddler stage. Early in life, it is not difficult to observe
toddlers as they
play. The observations usually show the dominate leaders as more
in this playgroup.
Reflecting on true leadership studies one cannot recommend one or
models that are proven the best. Leadership is personal, unique and
subjective to each individual.
Most would commend leaders who take a stand and are not willing to
compromise their convictions. This unique quality is most admirals
political realm. As it is commonly practiced, politics and
their hidden agendas and compromise on a regular basis. How
when a political leader stands for the common good and does the
even it costs him or her.
Whatever platform of leadership you are in it is proven that
That is the result of this study. Mostly from the inside out
Steven Covey, author of the First Things First advocates.
Owne Jacobs, Strategic Leadership: The Comparative Edge (Fort
Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.: Industrial College of the
Armed Forces, 2000, 24
Noel M. Tichy with Eli Cohen, The Leadership Engine: How
Winning Companies Build at Every Level (New York: Harper
Business, 1997, 3.
Edgar E Puryear Jr., American Genaearlship: Character Is
Everything: The Art of Command, Novato, Calif: Presidio Press.
Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed
(San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, 1992). 230, 241-42
Allen, K. E., SC Cherry, C. (2000). Systemic Leadership. Lanham
MD: University Press America
Bass, BM. (1990). Bass & Stogdills handbook of leadership (3rd
ed.) New York: Free Press
Baxter Magolda M>B. (2001) Making their Own Way: Narratives
for transforming higher education to promote self-development.
Sterling, VA: Stylus
Dennis W. (1989). On Becoming a Leader. Reading MA: Addison-
Allen K. Steizer, S.P> (1998) The Ecology of Leadership:
Adapting to the challenges of a changing world. The journal of
10. Gil Troy, Affairs of State: The Rise and
Rejection of the
Presidential Couple since World War 11. (New York: Free Press
11. Lewis Gould " Modern First Ladies and the Presidency,
Presidentail Studies Quarterly 20 (1990): 677-683
12. James David Barber, The Presidential Character: Predicting
Performance in the White House (Englewood Clifs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1972 editions in 1977.
13. Presidential Studies Quarterly (Vol29, No 3, 1998) devoted a
special issue to the impeachment of President Bill Clinton.
14. Thomas Cronin " President and Character Questions," Presidential
Studies Quarterly 28 (1998)
15. Alexander I. George , Presidential Personalities and
(Boulder< CO Westview Press, 1998)