The Success of AIU Graduates

Education around the world is changing rapidly. A university education must move at the speed of our new world. With personal access to Artificial Intelligence and the Internet, an individual must have the power to determine their own destiny and purpose. The educational method of AIU is designed for a more efficient and effective education. That is what makes Atlantic International University a leader in the new world of education.

AIU is breaking the paradigms of an outdated educational system, while the validation of other universities has not changed. They continue with the same policies trying to preserve the past. The 2 biggest criticisms of US universities right now are:
1. Too much time and cost to get a degree.
2. Students are not prepared for the job market. The most compelling validation of AIU comes from the results and success of our Alumni in their respective fields and careers.

The contribution of AIU students to the world and to their communities reflecting the UNESCO 2030 goals affirm and accredit the type of education acquired by students at AIU, respecting and exercising Human Rights. AIU has 26 years of being an autonomous institution.

Nevertheless, the institutional validation of AIU is confirmed by ASIC, an English institution that validates hundreds of universities in the world validated by their governments, giving to AIU the Premium recognition after a detailed analysis of the superior educational method of AIU, which permits our students to adapt to the changes in the current world with exponential growth through their

15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON The Constructed Environment

Call for Papers This Conference will be held 10-11 April 2025 at Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin (HTW Berlin) Campus Wilhelminenhof, Berlin, Germany.

We invite proposals for paper presentations, workshops/ interactive sessions, posters/ exhibits, colloquia, focused discussions, innovation showcases, virtual posters, or virtual lightning talks.

2025 Special Focus: “Sharing Practices and Sustainable Urban Fabrics”

Theme 1: The Design of Space and Place
Theme 2: Constructing the Environment
Theme 3: Environmental Impacts
Theme 4: Social Impacts

Become a Presenter:
1. Submit a proposal
2. Review timeline
3. Register

Advance proposal deadline 10 June, 2024 Advance registration deadline 10 July, 2024 Visit the website


Call for Papers This Conference will be held 2-4 October 2024 at Politécnico de Portalegre, Portalegre, Portugal + Online.

We invite proposals for paper presentations, workshops/ interactive sessions, posters/ exhibits, colloquia, focused discussions, innovation showcases, virtual posters, or virtual lightning talks.

2024 Special Focus: “Place Matters: The Valorization of Cultural, Gastronomic, and Territorial Heritage”

Theme 1: Food Production and Sustainability
Theme 2: Food, Nutrition, and Health
Theme 3: Food Politics, Policies, and Cultures

Become a Presenter:
1. Submit a proposal
2. Review timeline
3. Register

Regular proposal deadline 2 July 2024 Regular registration deadline 2 September 2024
Visit the website

Graduated with Distinction

MAY, 2024. This graduate students completed their program with a high cumulative grade point average, which reflects the quality of performance within their respective major. Congratulations!

Natalie Irving-Mattocks
Doctor of Science
Public Health

Marisa Matsuda Matayoshi
Bachelor of Business Administration
Management and Leadership

Sara Patricia Arce Moya
Doctor of Science
Political Science

Domingos Henrique Cabinda
Bachelor of Management
Hospital Management
Anson Amin Brackett
Master of Education
Educational Leadership and Administration
Nancy Edna Petersen Groc
Doctor of Education
Educational Research
Mmoloki Moreo
Doctor of Education
Rivadavio de Barros Gico Junior
Doctor of Theology
Eduardo Lourenço Viana
Doctor of Philosop hy
Legal Studies
Jack Fernandes dos Santos Netto
Doctor of Science
International Relations
Eboule Emmanuel
Doctor of International Relations
International Relations
Cambo dia
Akum Damarise Anne
Master of Project Management
Project Management
Cameroo n
Lerato Emily Mahata Moshabesha
Doctor of Science
Political Science
Nadia Cruz Molina
Doctor of Business Administration
Leadership and Coaching
Eliana Carmen Peña Astudillo
Doctor of Political Science
Political Science
Jonathan Ominyi Ahulo
Doctor of Science
Information Technology
John Freddy Benavides Urueña
Bachelor of Science
Industrial Engineering
Sara Patricia Arce Moya
Doctor of Science
Political Science
Costa Rica
Nick Ahmady
Doctor of Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Dicaury Antonia Frias Muriel
Bachelor of Science
Dominican Republic
Jose Andrés Alcantara Ramírez
Doctor of Philosop hy
Human Resources
Dominican Republic
Madeline Bernard
Bachelor of Business Administration
Business Administration
Dominican Republic
Manuel Jesus Muriel Contreras
Bachelor of Theology
Dominican Republic
Wilfrid Brunache
Bachelor of Business Administration
Business Administration
Dominican Republic
Luis R. Herrera Almonte
Doctor of Science
National Security and Defense
Dominican Republic
Yudy Altagracia Hilario Ventura
Bachelor of Science
Dominican Republic
Patricia Indhira Céspedes Sención
Master of Human Resources
Human Resources
Dominican Republic
Santiago Fernando Moya Lopez
Bachelor of Science
Civil Engineering
José Wilfredo Agreda Coto
Master of Business Administration
International Business
El Salvador
Fianla Guy Marcel
Doctor of Philosop hy
Information Systems
Equatorial Guinea
Salisu Badamasi
Bachelor of Public Administration
Business Management
Tim Berger
Doctor of Science
Chemical Engineering
Wisdom Dzikunu
Bachelor of Science
Information Technology
Victor Dennis Philip
Master of Science
Renewable Energy Engineering
José Alejandro Chinchilla Pérez
Post-Doctorate of Science
Information Technology and Management
Eder Sogel Campos Gómez
Bachelor of Business Administration
Business Administration and Management
Carmen Beatriz González Sandoval
Bachelor of Arts
Plastic Arts
Derrick Nwunembom Nkwain
Master of Science
Business Management
Dianka Toumane
Master of Disaster Management
Emergency and Disaster Risk Management
Mackenson Noel
Master of Science
Artificial Intelligence
Hector Manuel Aguilar Mendez
Doctor of Legal Studies
Legal Studies
Genny Yolany Torres Torres
Doctor of Management
Project Management
José Raynieri Estrada Guzmán
Bachelor of Science
Civil Engineering
Dr. Székely Zoltán
Doctor of Philosop hy
Business Management
Venugopal Gandikota
Bachelor of Science
Civil Engineering
Livnat Halel Buhnik
Doctor of Science
Health Science
Natalie Irving-Mattocks
Doctor of Science
Public Health
Johoan Chambers Blackwood
Doctor of Education
Loleita Stewart-Russell
Master of Arts
Educational Leadership
Ricardo Olueda Hemmings
Doctor of Science
Human Resource Management
Shorna Newsome-Myrie
Doctor of Science
Counselling Psychology
Nursulu Boranbaykyzy
Master of Science
Oil, Gas and Energy Engineering
Pascalia Felistas Epaalat
Bachelor of Science
Reproductive Health
James Kimaiyo Bungei
Doctor of Education
Educational Policy and Management
Bibiana Lumuli Wanalwenge
Master of Science Communication
Simon Wankuru
Doctor of Project Management
Project Management
Nasser Ahmad Farhat
Post-Doctorate of Science
Environmental Engineering
Leba non
George Antoun Abdel Nour
Bachelor of Science
Electric and Electronics Engineering
Leba non
Aminetou Mohamed Deyoune
Master of Psychology
Human Develop ment Psychology
Walter Plaza Rodríguez
Doctor of Education
Ganga Sagar Prajapati
Bachelor of Science
Civil Engineering
Juan Jose Montoya Pérez
Doctor of Juridical Sciences
International Relations and Diplomacy
Abdou Ousmane
Doctor of Economics
Moses Oluwafemi Taiwo
Master of Business Administration
Henry Aletor Otaigbe
Doctor of Entrepreneurship
Oluyomi Ebenezer Oyewole
Bachelor of Science
Civil Engineering
Asuen Uyiekpen Isaac
Doctor of Philosop hy
Airport Operations Management
Kamoru Adeleke Adigun
Doctor of Philosop hy
Adebayo Alfred Adeniyi
Master of Science
Kevin Enienghan
Bachelor of Science
Mechanical Engineering
Marisa Matsuda Matayoshi
Bachelor of Business Administration
Management and Leadership
Rachel Cate Perez Piguerra
Doctor of Science
Physical Education
Philipp ines
Showq Alfageih
Doctor of Economics
Saudi Arab ia
Victor Moyo
Bachelor of Science
Project Management
South Africa
Gale Betty Alifoso
Bachelor of Public Health
Public Health and Epidemiology
South Sudan
Avelino Guterres Correia
Doctor of Science
Public Health
Deon J. Messam-Reid
Bachelor of Science
Turks and Caicos Islands
Oguru Patrick Onen
Bachelor of Criminology
Crime Detection and Investigation
Simon Alazar
Bachelor of Science
Osemeike Gloria Eyieyien
Doctor of Philosop hy
Project Management
United Kingdom
Andries Stefanus Pelser
Bachelor of Science
Computer Information Technology
Sanes Tanis
Master of Administration
Yinet Ramirez Capestany
Doctor of Science
Behavioral Analysis
Adara Pena
Doctor of Science
Behavioral Analysis
Susana Teitelbaum
Doctor of Education
Joaquin Alvarez
Master of Science
Building and Construction Engineering
Gerdeen Notherdeen Sutherland
Doctor of Education
Educational Leadership and Administration
Elda Evelia McGrath
Doctor of Philosop hy
Education Policy
Maria del Carmen Contreras Velasco
Bachelor of Science
Misti L. Millar-Calderon
Doctor of Philosop hy
Fernando Vallejo
Master of Business Administration
Engineering Management
Lulet Patricia Rhoden
Bachelor of Business Administration
Business Administration
Sabrina Donaldson
Master of Science
Animal Science
Thandiwe Butt
Bachelor of Science
Edward Tamukaneyi Chinhoyi
Bachelor of Project Management
Project Management
Zimbab we

Find More Graduates

This month we have graduates from: Angola · Belize · Bolivia · Botswana · Brazil · Cambodia · Cameroon · Canada · Chile · China · Colombia · Costa Rica · Denmark · Dominican Republic · Ecuador · El Salvador · Equatorial Guinea · Germany · Ghana · Grenada · Guatemala · Guinea · Haiti · Honduras · Hungary · India · Israel · Jamaica · Kazakhstan · Kenya · Lebanon · Mauritania · Mexico · Nepal · Nicaragua · Niger · Nigeria · Peru · Philippines · Saudi Arabia · South Africa · South Sudan · Timor-Leste · Turks and Caicos Islands · Uganda · United Kingdom · USA · Zambia · Zimbabwe

Student Testimonials

Guven Icoz
Doctor of Security and Strategic Studies
March 22, 2024
“A doctorate degree in The Atlantic International University is a rewarding and challenging experience. I have always aimed to improve my skills and competencies in various areas related to my education and tried to improve my performance. Given my over 30 years of professional experience, I solve problems, mediate disputes, and deal with issues before they are brought to upper levels. I act as a confidant and advisor to my superiors and act as a sounding board for ideas. I have a Master’s degree in Science, Mechanical Engineering, Thesis; Rockets, Missiles, and energy systems. A doctorate in AIU has added another value to my career. I have published my thesis —Analytical Approach on the Effects of Threats to International Peace and Security Caused by Terrorist Acts, which contributes to my advancement of knowledge in the discipline. I gained a unique academic experience in global politics as well as terrorism. Last, but not least, I would be honored to thank my advisor, tutor, and admin. Without their support, ... READ TEXT:
Nathan Nyamao
Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering
March 27, 2024
“First is to thank the Atlantic International University (AIU) management council and the entire community for accepting my andragogy enrollment request as a student with my old age. I had heard about the university with a lot of esteem, hope and enthusiastically embraced myself with many feelings of joining the great AIU —“hope had just come to me at the right time of having a degree at hand at last”. I cannot belief or imagine that God has made this possible and I am going to finally graduate soon. It is Gods hand, and to my dear Parent (my mother), my family who unconditionally, believed in me and encouraged me when I was at the brink of giving up. I have been enjoying All fee sponsorship support and all the digital library educational correspondences, work details, assignments, and reports from the university without delay and works well for me at any time. It is my sincere appreciation to all the AIU team of tutors and mentors at large. My AIU experience is a big –wholly awesome picture to me and my ... READ TEXT:
Lulet Patricia Rhoden
Bachelor of Business Administration April 1, 2024
“First I must say this Online University atmosphere is incredibly vibrant and diverse. There are students from different states and countries. It’s fascinating to learn about their backgrounds and cultures which has broadened my perspective in so many ways. The academic journey has been a challenging one yet very rewarding. The coursework is rigorous, but it has pushed me to think critically and expand my knowledge in ways I have never imagined. I’ve had the opportunity to explore subjects that genuinely interest me and delve deeper into my chosen field of study. The professors here are incredibly knowledgeable and passionate about their subjects, which has made the learning experience even more fulfilling. One of the highlights of university life has been the opportunities for personal growth. I’ve been exposed to new ideas, perspectives, and experiences that have shaped me in profound ways. It’s an environment that encourages self-discovery, self-expression, and embracing diversity. I’m constantly evolving ... READ TEXT:
Philip Kamau Manyara
Bachelor of Business Information
Technology April 4, 2024
“Throughout my time at AIU, I have been exposed to a comprehensive curriculum that combines theoretical knowledge with practical applications in the field of business and technology. The program provided me with a solid foundation in areas such as data analysis, information systems management, business intelligence, and strategic planning, among others. During my studies, I actively participated in various academic activities, including online lectures, discussions, group projects, and assignments. These experiences not only enhanced my understanding of the subject matter but also improved my critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills. Additionally, I took advantage of the resources available through AIU Online’s virtual library and academic support services to further enrich my learning experience. I am particularly grateful for the guidance and support provided by the faculty members at AIU Online. Their expertise, mentorship, and encouragement ... READ TEXT:


The needed development of Human and Social Sciences

By Dr. Rosa Hilda Lora M. Advisor at AIU |

We find ourselves in a world in which sciences such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology and others are called “hard sciences”. History, Pedagogy, Sociology, and others are called “soft sciences”. The above separation is also called the “Two Cultures” problem. “The entire debate arose as a result of the Rede Conference, given in Cambridge by the researcher Charles Percy Snow, where the abyss between the exact and natural sciences and the human sciences was expressed.” Of the “Hard Sciences” and the “Soft Sciences”. Notes on the “Two Cultures” Dialnet- October 2019. file:///C:/Users/rhlor/Downloads/ Dialnet-DeLasCienciasDurasYLasCienciasBlandas- 9076024.pdf We are also witnesses of the way in which research has developed in the world of the people who dedicate themselves to this task. In the world of learning scientific activity, there is a separation in areas of modality knowledge that can’t be done by researchers of hypotheses, theories, and laws because each of these operations must be integrated into what has been demonstrated and proven by other sciences.

The new proposal is demonstrated and its integration into the entire collection of existing sciences is verified. We encounter another problem in scientific work: how much research has been done in the field of “hard sciences”, how much research has been carried out in the field of “soft sciences”. “The distance between humanities and sciences has its origins in the specialization and professionalization of sciences in the 19th century. At this stage, blind faith in science is strengthened and greater importance is given to practical knowledge and research in physics, biology, mathematics, chemistry, botany, etc. Even more so when the Industrial Revolution occurred. That fact marked the takeoff of the scientific career with economic purposes and to solve the technological problems of the young capitalist system.” Of the “Hard Sciences” and the “Soft Sciences”. Notes on the “Two Cultures”. Dialnet- October 2019. file:///C:/Users/rhlor/Downloads/ Dialnet-DeLasCienciasDurasYL-asCienciasBlandas-9076024.pdf Currently, it’s about solving the problem of the poor development of sciences that can’t make use of the laboratory or mathematics to carry out their verifications with the holistic research model that means providing a comprehensive solution to a problem. “In the study programs, it’s mandatory to include the teaching of science and at the same time its relationship with the problems of the modern world and society itself. In addition, young students and future scientists must be guided towards the application of their research in the solution of practical and community problems.” Of the “Hard Sciences” and the “Soft Sciences”.

Notes on the “Two Cultures”. Dialnet- October 2019. file:///C:/Users/rhlor/Downloads/ Dialnet- DeLasCienciasDurasYLasCienciasBlandas- 9076024.pdf The problem we have been left with is that of the development of the Human and Social Sciences. First, we will make a list of those considered “hard sciences” and then another of the “soft sciences”. The Human Sciences are those that have to do with the human being in his development as such and in the arts, which are the activities considered beautiful. The Humanities exist in the Western world of ancient Rome. Social Sciences is the intermediate point between what human beings do in their development and what they can demonstrate through experiment and quantification.

Human Sciences
• Philology. Divided into Language Sciences and Literature Sciences.
• Hermeneutics. Science of Interpretation
• Religious Sciences. Scientific analysis of various religions.
• Educational Sciences. Study of the different practices to achieve education by solving the problems that it entails.
• Historiography or Art Sciences. Historicization, analysis and criticism of art.
• History of Culture. History of the Ideas expressed.
• Law Sciences. They study how to direct individuals in a comprehensive and fair manner.
• Geography. Study of the Earth's surface and societies.

Social Sciences
• Politic science. Study of political systems and behavior of society.
• Demography. Study of the distribution, composition, and size of the population.
• Economy. Study of goods and services in terms of their production, distribution, and consumption.
• Semiology. Study of signs and symbols and the way humans create them.
• Sociology. Study of human groups in terms of the relationships established in the production of goods - work, distribution, and consumption of these.
• Linguistics. Study of the structure and evolution of Language
• Psychology. Study of the mental processes and behavior of human beings.
• Anthropology. Study of human groups as such.
• History. Study of certain systems over time.

We have disciplines that are linked to the Social Sciences: Accounting, Administration, Communication, Design, International Relations, Public Relations, Journalism, Social Work and Library Science How many investigations of the previous sciences have been done from the end of the 19th century to date? “The research that defines the epistemic assessment of reality in social sciences must be seen in three dimensions. These point out, firstly, the crisis of the paradigms of social knowledge, secondly, the historical development of social disciplines, and finally, the general trends of professional training in the context of the crisis of contemporary society. UNE SCO – IE SALC - Higher Education and Society- 2019. https:// ess3/issue/view/6 The previous quote shows us where the Human and Social Sciences meet. We will mention the research developed in Mathematics due to the amount of new knowledge that the “hard sciences” have: Number Theory, Mathematical Analysis, Differential Geometry, Algebra, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, Hyperbolic Geometry, Abstract Algebra, Vector Space, Boolean Algebra, Mathematical Logic, The Linear Algebra, The Continuity of a Function, Gödel’s Theorems, Taniyama’s Conjecture, Proof of Well’s Conjectures, Probability, Topology, Differential Geometry, Algebraic Geometry, The Theory of Invariants, The Four Color Theorem, Fermat’s Theorem, The classification of finite simple groups, Differential Geometry, The Theory of Relativity, Game Theory, Topology, Metric Space, Topological Space, The Theory of Categories, Algebraic Geometry, Measurement Theory, Lebesque Integral, Probability Theory, Ergodic Theory, Knot Theory, Quantum Mechanics, Ergodic Theory, Singularity Theory, Theory of Catastrophes, Model Theory, Fractals, Lie Groups, Algebras, Recursion Theory, Computer Complexity Theory, Data Analysis, Optimization, Operations Research, Discrete Mathematics, Transformation Fast Fourier, Forward Error Correction, The Kalman Filter, Control Theory, The RSA Algorithm, Asymmetric Cryptography.

To have information on the research work of the other “hard sciences” along with the theories created, we can read the work of Dr. Pablo González Casanova. “General Secretary of the Association of Universities (1953-1954), Coordinator of the Center for Development Studies (1965-1966), Director of the Institute of Social Research (1966-1970), Member of the Governing Board for several years, and Rector of UNAM (1970-1972)”. https://www.unesco. org/es/articles/memoriam-de-pablogonzalez- casanova-premio-internacional- unesco-jose-marti-2003 The extraordinary work of Dr. González Casanova is the following: The new sciences and the Humanities: from Academia to Politics. Clacso, 2017. https:// bitstream/CLACSO/16599/1/Nuevas_ Ciencias.pdf Due to all the Theories and Laws of Mathematics we can conclude that the field of Human and Social Sciences is forgotten. It’s also our knowledge that research has been developed alongside trade; There are large research budgets for those areas that will give great dividends in the creation of technology. What we are witnessing in this XXI century is a society that is not keeping pace with all research: we are talking about the society of misinformation and the society of hate speech. What at first glance can be obtained is that everything that the “hard sciences” have done, we do not know how to coexist with each other. Where can you go if each wants to destroy the other? If we destroy the others we won’t go anywhere. It’s necessary that we become aware that a world where each being can grow towards the path, they desire is well-being for all. We urgently need to develop “soft sciences” thinking.

If you look at the world situation regarding the study and development of “soft sciences” by visiting universities, we see that students of these sciences are few. Students are also allergic to reading “soft science” works. Another fact happens: publishers don’t not want to publish works of “soft sciences”, because the market for them is scarce. In libraries, these works are little requested and there they die. When you want to do work with “soft sciences” bibliography, it’s difficult to find recently published works. This world will not change, it will not be one of peace, it will not be better with opportunities if we don’t make a change that will not come from heaven, we are human beings who must make the change. Now we are in interdisciplinary and discipline, it means that the elements of other sciences are introduced to the central study, enough, we must soak up and develop these sciences that are telling us: gentlemen human beings to build everything you want. first, you have to build yourself. You are studying at Atlantic International University: when you are told to read a work in the Human or Social Sciences, take the time so that you can build the world we need. Learning is to build and to build ourselves.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. De las “Ciencias Duras” y las “Ciencias Blandas”. Apuntes sobre las “Dos Culturas” Dialnet- octubre 2019. file:///C:/Users/rhlor/Downloads/Dialnet-DeLasCienciasDurasYLasCienciasBlandas- 9076024.pdf | González Casanova, Pablo. Las nuevas ciencias y las Humanidades: de la Academia a la Política. Clacso, 2017. https:// pdf | UNAM- DGIRE- Entre Todos- Revista de Ciencias Sociales. | UNAMRevista Mexicana de Sociología- 2024. http://mexicanadesociologia. | UNESCO. Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. Construyendo Economías y Sociedades Inclusivas y Sostenibles. | UNESCO – IESALC- Educación Superior y Sociedad- 2019. https://www.iesalc.

Social workers’ interventionist role in depression cases among public sector retirees in Nigerian

Friday Imoluamen | Doctor of Social Work | Part 1/2

1. Introduction The status of retirees tends to differ among countries according to classification. Countries have been categorized largely according to economic status. For retirees in developing and less-developed countries, cases of depression have risen steadily, depending on overall population and standard of living to which individuals are exposed (Kail & Carr, 2020). For developed countries, statistics about depression cases are staggered in spite of the state of economic growth and development (Fiiwe, 2020). Nevertheless, the rate of depression among people varies remarkably due to prevalence or lack of socioeconomic amenities. For most less developed and developing countries that are characterized by high population, poverty and unemployment, depression tends to rank high among the youths and older members of the population (Adetunde, Imhonopi, George & Derby, 2016; Otakpo, John-Nelso n & Wike, 2020).

Rising cases of depression in Nigeria is alarming, and have become a source of concern to medical workers as well as researchers. Depression is a recurring problem traceable, to a large extent, to socioeconomic, psychological and biological sources. It has also been traced to diverse issues which are beyond the immediate control of victims. Among the various groups of people that are most vulnerable to depression in Nigeria’s socioeconomic context are retirees.

On a yearly basis, the number of retirees from Nigeria’s public and private sectors has continued to increase (Abdulkadir, Rasaq & Isiaka, 2018). While some retirees are prepared for the changes and challenges of retirement, others seem to find themselves suddenly faced with the vagaries that retirement poses in a society where the social welfare policy is apparently ineffectual. Issues such as rising cost of living, loss of purchasing power, inactivity, health concerns and social insecurity among others force certain categories of people into depression (Taylor, Taylor, Nguyen & Chatters, 2018). Depression is induced essentially by both internal and external factors. One of the categories of stakeholders in the management of depression is the community of social workers. Considering the mitigating and interventionist role of social workers in issues that affect society welfare, and the preponderance of depression cases among retirees, it is expedient to investigate the extent to which social workers in Nigeria have helped to ameliorate depression among retirees. With reference specifically to public sector establishments, retirees from the sector are exposed to economic hardships, owing principally to difficulty in obtaining their retirement gratuities and pensions (Fiiwe, 2020).

Retirement is a phase during which retirees are disengaged from work colleagues and other social groups that could keep them in active interaction and social engagement. Absence of social interaction and inactivity inevitably breed loneliness (Olusegun, 2022). In general, uncertainties about life in retirement generate worries among potential retirees, particularly where they have neither planned adequately nor received professional counseling (Ejeh, Achor & Ejeh, 2019). Retirement is the exit of individuals from active engagement in official work at a stipulated age (Akpan, 2021). As a consequence, such individuals cease to draw financial resources from the work place. As a phase in the life of employees, retirement is cessation from organized work activities either compulsorily or voluntarily (Mokuolu, 2016). Retirement gives retirees the independence to determine how they intend to spend their time. It tends to accord them a right to freedom of time. The freedom, if not properly planned and engaged with specific goals and objectives, could expose retirees to frustration, health issues, idleness and disaffection (Akpan, 2021; Kail & Carr, 2020). Across most states in the Nigerian federation, retirees are owed pensions running into months.

Evidently, lack of funds creates economic hardship for retirees in the maintenance of their health and other domestic family needs. Such situations result in poor mental health of which depression and its symptoms are of significant notice. This issue is recurrent among many public sector retirees in Nigeria. Nigeria operates the largest economy in West Africa, and given its abundance of natural and human resources, majority of the country’s citizens ought to have access to better socio-economic amenities. Statistics about the growth of Nigeria’s economy do not depict in reality the living conditions of a vast proportion of the population. Mismanagement of resources and corruption have exposed most government employees to difficulties, especially retirees whose emoluments are unduly delayed, and in some cases short-changed. Continued delay of retirees’ pensions and exposure to economic hardship have been observed to induce depression on a rising scale among retirees in the Nigerian public sector space. Given the strategic professional role that social workers play in society, the paper has two objectives: (i) To assess the extent to which social workers are engaged in stemming depression among public sector retirees in Nigeria; (ii) To determine whether or not social workers are prominent in the management of depression among retirees in Nigeria’s sociohealthcare system. The paper is structured in five sections. The rest of the paper is as follows: literature review is covered in section 2 while section 3 is the methodology. Section 4 presents analysis and discussion of results. Section 5 ends with conclusion and recommendations.

2. Literature review Depression is traced to several sources, but there is no universal agreement on the number of causes of depression. However, evidence has traced depression to family heredity, loss of affection, side effects of certain medications and mood change (Odoni et al., 2021). Basically, depression is an abnormal mood, depicting listlessness, frustration and thoughts of sorrow and helplessness (Ogbonna, 2017). Further, it is a state of human anxiety, excessive worry and detachment from activities in the surrounding environment (Lee & Smith, 2009; Ajewole, 2017). Chronic depression, if not systematically monitored and managed early enough, could become a psychiatric case of disorder. Symptoms of depression are evident in irritability, lack of concentration, indecision, suicidal thoughts and loss of appetite (Garrouste & Perdrix, 2021). Because personality traits differ among individuals, what may be viewed as a symptom of depression in one individual may not be present in another individual. Considering this view, symptoms of depression are diverse. In some other individuals, signs of depression manifest as feelings of insecurity, negative thoughts, loss of sexual desire and restlessness (Nall, 2019). Depression has a long history across the human race. The dimension of depression is multi-faceted. Research has shown that poor quality of food and unhealthy environment can exacerbate depression (Odoni et al., 2021). This finding buttresses the view that causes of depression are diverse. Depression has been further classified as cognitive, behavioural and emotional disturbances (Ajewole, 2017; Cheruvu & Chiyaka, 2019). Although depression is commonplace among all categories of people, it is erroneous to associate it as more prominent with the elderly. It is not inherently normal with aging. Depression is found to have grave consequences for individuals’ health, cognition and general composure (Taylor, 2014; Ajewole, 2017; Sarah, 2018). While elderly adults display more frequency of depression than younger adults, traces of depression common with the elderly have been identified as regularity of decreased energy, agitation, loss of concentration and fatigue among others (Ajewole, 2017). Indeed, studies on depression are diverse and replete with varied symptoms, causes and consequences (Dang, Ananthasubramaniam & Mezuk, 2022). An empirical study conducted on female retirees and depression in China adopted regression discontinuity, using data from panel studies (Yang, Tao, Cheng & Ti, 2022). The study found retirement to significantly reduce depression levels among female retirees in China. On further analysis, findings show that retirement has no significant potential to improve levels of depression among female retirees, but could exacerbate depression among female retirees who have neither spouse nor close relationships. Another empirical investigation, set in the Korean work environment, on whether retirement induces depression or discourages labour force anticipation found that statutory retirement is not associated with depression, but there is evidence of symptoms of depression (Lee & Smith, 2009). The study established that retirees more often face depression than workers. In a study of depression among retirees in Kogi State, Nigeria, findings revealed that retirees are associated with severe depression (Ejeh, Igbokwe & Onoja, 2020). The researchers adopted survey design and a multi-stage sampling technique to pull retirees from the field, data were subjected to descriptive statistics.

Health belief theory Social workers rely on a number of theories to enhance their understanding of health cases. Such theories describe old and modern beliefs. Social work theories are explored to enhance service efficiency (Sanchez, 2018). One of such theories is the health belief theory, drawn to underpin this study. Health workers seek and invest in tools that could improve their productivity and performance in the course of providing healthcare services (Johnson, 2016). Among such behavior tools is the health belief model. Health belief model is a social psychological health behavior tool that aids health workers to explain and predict patients’ behavior and how they respond to sickness and therapy. When the health belief model was first developed, the objective was to understand people’s failure to follow strategies that could prevent diseases (Wayne, 2019). The model was essentially designed for screening to detect diseases early enough for treatment and prevention purposes. However, use of the model extended to how patients respond to symptoms and comply with medical treatments (Nall, 2019). Health belief model suggests that an individual’s belief in the dangers or effects of an illness/ disease and potency of medical action will predict the probability of accepting and taking a medical action (Johnson, 2016). Despite its contribution to positive health behavior, the health belief theory exhibits some weakness (Wayne, 2019). There are other determinants of a patient’s acceptance of health behavior (action).

Among the determinants are attitudes, personal belief and culture which the health belief model fails to bring to the fore. Furthermore, the model has no reference to economic and environmental factors which may act as impediments to recommended health actions. The theory appears to have generalized application when indeed individuals and patients differ in background orientation. Similarly, belief systems are not in consonance across all societies. The health belief model is rooted in the behavioural theory that suggests two behavioural expectations. First, an individual’s strong desire is to avoid sickness, and where the individual is already sick, the desire is to recuperate. Second, a particular health action will prevent or cure sickness. Health behavior depends on an individual’s perception of the gains or benefits associated with the health behavior. Six behavioural constructs were formulated around the health belief model (Collins, 2020). These are perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cue to action and self-efficacy. In the first instance, according to the notion of perceived susceptibility, an individual may feel from internal conviction that he is at risk of an illness/disease. Such an individual has a sense of vulnerability which externally exposes him to risk of disease (Abraham, 2017). On the other hand, perceived severity considers the degree of impact or consequences of illness or disease. In this instance, it refers to the seriousness of an illness or strong threat it poses to the health of the individual when the disease continues untreated or without positive response to treatment. The individual may nurture this line of perception (feelings). Severity may result in death, physical incapacitation and threat to social status among others.

For perceived benefits, the individual tends to consider the gains of adopting a health action. A benefit in this context is the patient’s/ individual’s feeling or thought of the effectiveness (potency) of the health action available to cure the illness or stop a disease (Mirshad, 2020). Perceived benefits as conceived by the patient may rely also on the patient’s perception of susceptibility and severity of the illness/disease. Furthermore, there is the construct of perceived barriers. Barriers are those factors which the individual may consider and decide not to take a health action. They are negative influencers from the medical experts’ perspective. They are obstacles or impediments to recommended health actions. Barriers generally arise from the individual’s perception of the side effects and cost of a recommended drug or medical action. Cost may be a significant barrier where the patient is poor. From the foregoing, it would be observed that the individual’s/ patient’s perception is recurrent and plays a critical role in whether or not to adopt a particular health behavior. (Collins, 2020). Perception by the individual is what triggers or compels the individual/patient to decide whether or not to accept and take available health action recommended. However, the construct of self-efficacy is the extent to which a patient demonstrates confidence in taking the desired health behavior. Import of the theory is health patient’s understanding of the need to seek health care services in the appropriate place by consulting qualified professionals. Retirees who recognize that they are depressed or discover symptomatic changes in their system should make appropriate consultation.

Role of Social workers Social work is humanitarian in nature, designed to improve the social conditions of citizens in need (Mirshad, 2020). Social work is indispensable because of the vulnerability of the physically challenged, older members of the society and people with other health issues. There are yet individuals who are imperiled by diverse medical and psychological conditions for which they need coping assistance. Medical doctors, psychologists and social workers are trained to diagnose depression from symptoms exhibited by victims. The essence of diagnosis is to help patients manage the case and guide them through the path of recovery. Societies cannot function and grow progressively if where citizens are mentally, psychologically, spiritually, economically and physically unhealthy (Collins, 2020). Social work is a lifetransforming and actionbased profession by which social workers intervene to create relief for victims of social injustice, drug addicts, rape victims, depression, alcoholics and those suffering from self-inflicted inferiority complex among others (Azusa Pacific University, n.d.). The role of social workers is to enhance people’s wellbeing and help them adjust changing as well as challenging situations (Sanchez, 2018). Social workers examine social problems and analyze possible interventionist strategies (Ambrosino, Ambrosino, Heffernan & Shuttlesworth, 2008). Social work seeks to achieve the goal of rehabilitation as well as equip patients/ victims with the right attitude. TO BE CONTINUED

Publications by students:



Experts predicted dozens would close in 2023 –they were right.

Though college enrollment seems to be stabilizing after the pandemic disruptions, predictions for the next 15 years are grim. Colleges will be hurt financially by fewer tuition-paying students, and many will have to merge with other institutions or make significant changes to the way they operate if they want to keep their doors open. At least 30 colleges closed their only or final campus in the first 10 months of 2023, including 14 nonprofit colleges and 16 for-profit colleges, according to an analysis of federal data by the State Higher Education Executive Officers Association, or SHEEO. ... Over the past two decades, far more for-profit colleges closed each year than nonprofits. An average of nine nonprofit colleges closed each year, compared to an average of 47 for-profit colleges. This time [January] last year, experts predicted we’d see another wave of college closures, mostly institutions that were struggling before the pandemic and were kept afloat by Covidera funding. Since then, keeping their doors open has become unrealistic for these colleges, many of which are regional private colleges. ... By 2030, 449 colleges are expected to see a 25% decline in enrollment and 182 colleges are expected to see a 50% decline, according to an EAB analysis of federal enrollment data. ... Many colleges face the decision to merge with another institution or close down entirely. And if they wait too long to find a college to merge with, they really won’t have a choice. ... Read full text:

Lunar Geologic Atlas

China publishes world’s first in high-definition.

China has just released a geologic atlas set of the global moon with a scale of 1:2.5 million, which is the first complete high-definition lunar geologic atlas in the world, providing basic map data for future lunar research and exploration. This geologic atlas set, available in both Chinese and English, includes the Geologic Atlas of the Lunar Globe and the Map Quadrangles of the Geologic Atlas of the Moon, according to the Institute of Geochemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). “The geologic atlas of the moon is of great significance for studying the evolution of the moon, selecting the site for a future lunar research station and utilizing lunar resources. It can also help us better understand the Earth and other planets in the solar system, such as Mars,” said Ouyang Ziyuan, who is a CAS academician and a well-known lunar scientist. Since 2012, Ouyang Ziyuan and Liu Jianzhong have led a team of scientists and cartographers from relevant research institutions in compiling this atlas. With a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the origin and evolution of the moon, the team compiled the atlas based on scientific exploration data gained from China’s Chang’e lunar exploration program and other research results from both Chinese and international missions, Liu Jianzhong said. A total of 12,341 impact craters, 81 impact basins, 17 types of lithologies and 14 types of structures all over the moon are mapped in the atlas. ... Read full text:

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Kidney tissue

First fetus-to-fetus transplant demonstrated in rats.

Surgeons in Japan have transplanted kidney tissue from one rat fetus to another, while the recipient was still in its mother’s womb. Study lead Takashi Yokoo, a nephrologist at Jikei University School of Medicine in Tokyo, says the surgery is the first step to one day transplanting fetal pig kidneys into human fetuses that develop without functioning kidneys. Transplanting an organ before birth could allow it to grow and develop with the fetus, so that the organ is functioning at birth and has less risk of rejection. In their study, Yokoo and his colleagues genetically modified rats to express a green fluorescent protein in their kidneys, so that the tissue could be tracked. They then extracted the green kidney tissue from rat fetuses, and used a tiny needle to insert it under the skin in the backs of 18-day-old rat fetuses developing in their mothers’ wombs. The rat pups were born after the normal gestation period of around 22 days. The tissue gradually developed, forming waste-filtering units known as glomeruli and well-divided inner and outer kidney structures. Two-and-ahalf weeks later, the kidneys began to produce urine. “The timeline is considered to be almost identical to normal development,” says Yokoo. ...
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Scientists developed a sheet of gold that’s just one atom thick.

Meet graphene’s newest metallic cousin, goldene. For the first time, researchers have created a free-standing sheet of gold that’s just one atom thick. The development, reported in the April 16 Nature Synthesis, could someday allow scientists to use less gold in electronics and chemical reactions, says materials physicist Lars Hultman of Linköping University in Sweden. The gold sheet may also exhibit exotic properties like those found in other two-dimensional materials. Goldene holds promise as “a great catalyst because it’s much more economically viable” than thicker, three-dimensional gold, Hultman says. “You don’t need as many gold atoms to get the same function.” Gold joins a rarefied group consisting of several elements, including carbon and phosphorus, that have been formulated into 2-D sheets. While two-dimensional sheets of nonmetal elements —such as carbon-based graphene— can be prepared with relative ease, making 2-D sheets with metals such as iron and gold is harder, Hultman says. In gold’s case, atoms tend to form clumps rather than flat sheets. Hultman and colleagues first made a three-dimensional material called titanium gold carbide, whose structure contains two-dimensional sheets of gold. ... The team hopes to apply a similar etching strategy to make 2-D sheets of other metals like iridium and platinum, says coauthor Shun Kashiwaya, a materials ... Read full text

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Hydro Circal 100R

100% recycled aluminium

An aluminium alloy made from 100 per cent recycled waste will be a game-changer for the furniture industry, according to Norwegian designer Lars Beller Fjetland the artistic director for 100R, a Milan design week exhibition staged by industrial manufacturer Hydro featuring extruded aluminium objects created by seven different designers. The exhibition marked the launch of Hydro Circal 100R, a newly developed alloy billed as “the world’s first industrial- scale aluminium product made entirely of post-consumer scrap”. It was highly challenging to develop, due to the difficulty in removing paint, plastics and other contaminants from post-consumer aluminium, but could offer huge benefits for decarbonisation, according to the brand. With a reported 0.5 kilograms of CO2 produced for every kilogram of aluminium, Hydro claims the carbon footprint of this material is 97% lower than the global average for aluminium. ... Read full text:


Another way to promote sustainable design

Sello merges a chair and a stool into one innovative product. Designed by Antonio Lanzillo & Partners, Sello combines the versatility of a traditional chair with the practicality of a stool that includes a footrest. It is designed to be lightweight and portable, featuring a convenient hook for hanging bags and backpacks. This initiative is a collaboration with the Italian company LAS Mobili, which has been creating office furniture since 1976 with the aim of improving the quality of life in workplace environments. Guided by this ethos, the design studio embarked on creating SELLO, aligning with major trends that seek to establish new product categories through multifunctionality. This approach not only reiterates a commitment to sustainability but also reduces the need for multiple products by combining functionalities. As a result, it minimizes waste and environmental impact, while providing users with the flexibility to personalize their use of the product. ... Read full text

Adaptive uniform

Adidas has introduced a first-of-itskind adaptive wheelchair basketball uniform.

Adidas has introduced a first-of-itskind adaptive wheelchair basketball uniform. Developed in partnership with nonprofit Adaptive Sports Northwest (ASNW), this innovative kit is tailored specifically for the PNW Reign women’s wheelchair basketball team. The team debuted the look at the NWBA Tournament. The journey to this release began in Portland, where the brand’s Innovation team, fueled by input from wheelchair athletes, designed these specialized kits. The process was deeply collaborative, involving players in feedback sessions and ergometer testing to refine the speed mechanics and overall performance of the uniforms. Jennifer Armbruster, executive director of ASNW and a seven-time Paralympian, praised the direct involvement of athletes in the design and called it a “game-changer.” ... Read full text

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Regularly eating it linked to lower diabetes risk in women.

New research published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics suggests a potential association between avocado consumption and diabetes risk among Mexican adults. Diabetes is the second leading cause of death in Mexico, affecting around 15.2% of adults (12.8 million). To investigate the relationship between avocado consumption and diabetes risk, researchers studied mostly self-reported dietary habits and diabetes diagnosis information from survey responses of a portion of the Mexican population. The majority of these respondents were classified as having overweight or obesity. The results showed that women who consumed avocados were less likely to develop diabetes than those who did not eat them. This connection, however, was not observed in men. This study analyzed data on Mexican adults aged 20 and older from the Mexican National Survey of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT) years 2012, 2016, and 2018. After excluding specific individuals ... the final sample included 25,640 participants. ... In women, avocado consumers showed a 22% and 29% lower risk of developing diabetes in unadjusted and adjusted models, respectively. However, this protective effect of avocado consumption was not observed in men. This relationship remained consistent when laboratory-confirmed diabetes diagnoses were used ... Read full text

Working late

... and volatile hours may lead to depression and illness by 50.

Feeling burned out and looking for reasons to work less? A new study shows that working nights and volatile schedules in young adulthood can leave you vulnerable to depression and poor health in middle age. The research examined the work schedules and sleep patterns of more than 7,000 Americans interviewed over three decades, from the ages of 22 through 50. To the surprise of the study’s author, NYU Silver School of Social Work professor Wen-Jui Han, only one-quarter of the participants worked exclusively traditional daytime hours. The remainder —three-quarters of the sample of American workers born in the 1960s— worked variable hours. Those with more volatile work schedules, including night hours and rotating shifts, reported less sleep and a greater likelihood of poor health and depression at age 50 than those with more stable schedules and daytime hours. “Our work now is making us sick and poor,” Han said in a Zoom interview. “Work is supposed to allow us to accumulate resources. But, for a lot of people, their work doesn’t allow them to do so. They actually become more and more miserable over time.” Han would like her research —published in PLOS One— to prompt conversations about ways to “provide resources to support people to have a happy and healthy life when they’re physically exhausted and emotionally drained because of their work.” ... Read full text:

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Hello puffins

...goodbye belugas: the changing of an Arctic fjord.

Far north of the Arctic Circle lies a fjord on the front lines of climate change. Geir Wing Gabrielsen has been visiting this inlet, in the Norwegian archipelago Svalbard, since 1981, when he first came to study the behaviour of Arctic birds. It used to be that each year when the ecotoxicologist would arrive in May or June —springtime in Svalbard— he could count on one thing: that the fjord would still be locked in ice. But all of that has changed. The Arctic is warming four times as fast as the rest of the world owing to climate change. And because of a quirk of ocean currents, the fjord, called Kongsfjorden, is warming even faster. So much so that, since 2006, it no longer freezes over. This has completely reshaped the fjord’s ecosystem, according to a study in Polish Polar Research published in January. Arctic mammals such as beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) that once called the fjord home have left. Meanwhile, more southerly animals including Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) and Atlantic mackerels (Scomber scombrus) have moved in. And new habitats have popped up along the shoreline where sea ice once suffocated plant growth. Some newcomers to Kongsfjorden present a challenge. Luisa Düsedau, a molecular biologist says that she and her colleagues need to keep a watch out for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as they walk the shoreline to collect specimens such as algae and kelp. ... Read full text:

Climate protesters

...storm Tesla’s Gigafactory in Europe.

German climate protesters clashed with police as they attempted to break into Tesla’s factory site near Berlin on Friday [May 10], during a five-day demonstration against the carmaker’s local expansion plans. Footage on social media showed crowds of black-clad protesters running toward Tesla premises. German media reported injuries among police and protesters, as well as an unknown number of arrests. “Why are they not jailed for breaking and entering?” Tesla CEO Elon Musk said on X. He denied the protesters had reached Tesla property. “Protesters did not manage to break through the fenceline. There are still 2 intact fence lines all around.” ... Eight hundred people participated in the protest, Lucia Mende, spokesperson for Disrupt Tesla, told WIRED. She contradicted the police and Musk’s claim that the demonstrators did not reach Tesla property. She added activists were now on their way to a disused airfield which Tesla is reportedly using to store thousands of unsold cars. “They want to prevent the expansion of the factory,” Mende said of the protesters. ... Tesla’s German factory, which produces electric cars and batteries, has for months been the target of protests by climate activists, who call the company’s green credentials a sham. “Companies like Tesla are there to save the car industry, they’re not there to save the climate,” Esther Kamm, spokesperson for Turn Off ... Read full text:

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Supply chain law

EU Parliament approves it. Council vote still needed.

The proposed legislation, which began in 2020, empowers regulators to take action against companies failing to conduct such due diligence and, in some situations, allows victims of corporate abuses to approach European courts to seek justice. It applies to companies based within the EU and selling into it to that have more than 1,000 employees and more than €450m (£387m) in annual turnover. Following the European Parliament’s vote, the law now needs final approval by ministers of EU member states, which is expected to take place in late May. Today’s vote [April 24] took place on the 11th anniversary of the tragic collapse of the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh on April 24, 2013, which killed 1,138 garment workers and injured over 2,000 others. Aruna Kashyap, associate director on corporate accountability at Human Rights Watch, said: “The 11th anniversary of the Rana Plaza disaster is a somber reminder of why a due diligence law is long overdue. The European Parliament’s vote sends a strong message that the EU should no longer let large corporations get away with human rights and environmental abuses. “The European Commission pledged to adopt a law to hold corporations accountable when they took office five years ago. Ministers from EU member states should give a final nod to the text and pave the way for a new chapter on corporate accountability in global supply chains.” ... Read full text:

Irish police

...dismantle Dublin's migrant ‘tent city.’

Dublin, May 1 (Reuters) - Irish police dismantled about 200 tents housing asylum seekers in Dublin early on Wednesday, tackling what has become a focal point for heated debate around migration. Ireland is struggling to accommodate record numbers of refugees while facing a housing shortage, and a so-called tent city had sprung up near government buildings in the capital’s central Mount Street area over the last year. While the young men who lived in small tents in the city were largely left alone, there have been protests in smaller communities against migrants living in hotels and hostels. Violence erupted in Dublin in November, led by far-right activists. The government said that the camped-out asylum seekers had been moved to sites south of Dublin with weather-proof tents, showers, food and security. Prime Minister Simon Harris said, ahead of the move, that it was important they did not return. “We do not live in a country where makeshift shantytowns are allowed to just develop,” he said. By early morning police had loaded the majority of those living in the camp onto buses. The blue tarpaulin that hung over tents for added protection was taken down and the tents removed. Footpaths were power hosed and the smell of disinfectant hung in the air. One man, speaking in broken English and clutching two plastic bags of belongings, said he could not go on a bus because his wife did not have the correct paperwork. ...
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Blue whales

Found near the seychelles for the first time in decades.

There are only around 5,000 to 15,000 blue whales left in the world. Their populations experienced a 89-97% decline due to commercial whaling activities worldwide that started in the North Atlantic in 1868. Blue whales were primarily valued for their blubber, transformed into oil and used in cosmetics and soap, for the lubrication of industrial equipment, and as lamp oil. In 1978, the last deliberate capture of a blue whale was recorded off Spain. Historically, the Seychelles archipelago was an opportunistic whaling ground for Soviet whaling fleets en route to and from the Antarctic. In the waters of the northern Indian Ocean, whalers illegally killed more than 1,200 blue whales, including 500 near the Seychelles, between 1963 and 1966. Since then, no dedicated research had occurred to assess the abundance of blue whales in this region until 2020, when I [Jeremy Kiszka] partnered with the University of Seychelles, Oceanic Films (UK) and my colleague, Kate Stafford, to investigate. We carried out two expeditions in November 2020 and 2021. After surveying about 5,500km across the northern Seychelles, we had a total of five sightings of up to 10 blue whales. After sharing our pictures with other research groups working on blue whales in the Indian Ocean, no “match” was found. This means the whales we identified in Seychelles might have been photographed for the first time ever! ...
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10 billion crabs

...suddenly vanished from the Bering Sea. Now we know why.

When scientists realized that nearly 10 billion snow crabs had gone missing from Bering Sea between 2018 to 2021, they weren’t sure where they could have gone. After searching for a potentially migrating population, however, they came to a much more unfortunate conclusion. A new study published by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) researchers in Science found that the billions of snow crabs weren’t finding a new home —they were suffering from what was likely the largest mortality collapse known to the species. Researchers have been aware of the crabs’ disappearance for a while, but the extent of the catastrophe and the exact causes behind it were previously unknown. The NOAA team started a search for the crabs —looking north, west, and even deep in the ocean. With no evidence of crab migration, the researchers determined that the creatures had been lost to a massive mortality event. “It’s a fishery disaster in the truest sense of the word,” Cody Szuwalski, lead author of the study and fishery biologist at NOAA, told Science News. Even though snow crabs typically live in water temperatures no more than 2°C, they can easily handle upward of 12°C. Not only did the warmer temperature push the crab’s caloric needs higher —the crabs sometimes needed as much as four times their normal caloric intake to survive— but it also drew other fish into the water to feed on the crabs’ food supply. ...
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No one buys books

By Elle Griffin

In 2022, Penguin Random House wanted to buy Simon & Schuster. The two publishing houses made up 37% and 11% of the market share, according to the filing, and combined they would have condensed the Big Five publishing houses into the Big Four. But the government intervened and brought an antitrust case against Penguin to determine whether that would create a monopoly. The judge ultimately ruled that the merger would create a monopoly and blocked the $2.2 billion purchase. But during the trial, the head of every major publishing house and literary agency got up on the stand to speak about the publishing industry and give numbers, giving us an eyeopening account of the industry from the inside. All of the transcripts from the trial were compiled into a book called The Trial. It took me a year to read, but I’ve finally summarized my findings and pulled out all the compelling highlights.

I think I can sum up what I’ve learned like this: The Big Five publishing houses spend most of their money on book advances for big celebrities like Brittany Spears and franchise authors like James Patterson and this is the bulk of their business. They also sell a lot of Bibles, repeat best sellers like Lord of the Rings, and children’s books like The Very Hungry Caterpillar. These two market categories (celebrity books and repeat bestsellers from the backlist) make up the entirety of the publishing industry and even fund their vanity project: publishing all the rest of the books we think about when we think about book publishing (which make no money at all and typically sell less than 1,000 copies). But let’s dig into everything they said in detail.

Bestsellers are rare In my essay Writing books isn’t a good idea I wrote that, in 2020, only 268 titles sold more than 100,000 copies, and 96% of books sold less than 1,000 copies. That’s still the vibe.

Q. Do you know approximately how many authors there are across the industry with 500,000 units or more during this four-year period?
A. My understanding is that it was about 50.
Q. 50 authors across the publishing industry who during this four-year period sold more than 500,000 units in a single year?
A. Yes. —Madeline Mcintosh, CEO, Penguin Random House US

The DOJ’s lawyer collected data on 58,000 titles published in a year and discovered that 90% of them sold fewer than 2,000 copies and 50% sold less than a dozen copies. In my essay No one will read your book, I said that publishing houses work more like venture capitalists. They invest small sums in lots of books in hopes that one of them breaks out and becomes a unicorn, making enough money to fund all the rest. Turns out, they agree! Every year, in thousands of ideas and dreams, only a few make it to the top. So I call it the Silicon Valley of media. We are angel investors of our authors and their dreams, their stories. That’s how I call my editors and publishers: angels… It’s rather this idea of Silicon Valley, you see 35% are profitable; 50 on a contribution basis. So every book has that same likelihood of succeeding. —Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Random House

Those unicorns happen every five to 10 years or so. We’re very hit driven. When a book is successful, it can be wildly successful. There are books that sell millions and millions of copies, and those are financial gushes for the publishers of that book, sometimes for years to come… A gusher is once in a decade or something. For instance, I don’t know if you know the Twilight series of books? Hachette published the Twilight series of books, and those made hundreds of millions of dollars over the course of time. Right now the novels of Colleen Hoover are topping the bestseller lists in really, really huge numbers and the publishers of those books are making a lot of money. You probably remember The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo… Or the Fifty Shades of Grey series. So once every five years, ten years, those come along for the whole industry and become the industry driver that’s drawing people into bookstores because there is such a commotion about them. —Michael Pietsch, CEO, Hachette

Big advances go to celebrities They spent a lot of the trial talking about books that made an advance of more than $250,000 —they called these “anticipated top-sellers.” According to Nicholas Hill, a partner at Bates White Economic Consulting, 2% of all titles earn an advance over $250,000. Publishers Marketplace says it’s even lower.

Hill says titles that earn advances over $250,000 account for 70% of advance spending by publishing houses. At Penguin Random House, it’s even more. The bulk of their advance spending goes to deals worth $1 million or more, and there are about 200 of those deals a year. Of the roughly $370 million they say PRH accounts for, $200 million of that goes to advance deals worth $1 million or more. Most of those are deals with celebrities. And Penguin gets most of them. Books by the Obamas sold so many copies they had to be removed from the charts as statistical anomalies.

Because they are so lucrative, Gallery Books Group focuses its efforts on trying to get celebrities to write books. 75% [of our] acquisitions come from approaching celebrities, politicians, athletes, the “celebrity adjacent,” etc. That way, we can control the content…. We are approaching authors and celebrities and politicians and athletes for ideas. So it’s really we are on the look out. We are scouts in a lot of ways… —Jennifer Bergstrom, SVP, Gallery Books Group

Bergstrom said her biggest celebrity sale was Amy Schumer who received millions of dollars for her advance. We’ve had a lot of success publishing musicians, I mentioned Bruce Springsteen. We’ve also published Bob Dylan and Linda Ronstadt, a lot of entertainers through the years… There was a political writer, Ben Shapiro, who has a very popular podcast and a large following. We also competed with HarperCollins for that. —Jonathan Karp, CEO, Simon & Schuster

Penguin Random House US has guidelines for who gets what advance: Category 1: Lead titles with a sales goal of 75,000 units and up. Advance: $500,000 and up Category 2: Titles with a sales goal of 25,000-75,000 units Advance: $150,000-$500,000 Category 3: Titles with a sales goal of 10,000-25,000 units Advance: $50,000- $150,000 Category 4: Titles with a sales goal of 5,000 to 10,000 units Advance: $50,000 or less Is anyone else alarmed that the top tier is book sales of 75,000 units and up? One post on Substack could get more views than that. ...

Franchise authors are the other big category Walsch says James Patterson and John Grisham get advances in the “many millions.” Putnam makes most of its money from repeat authors like John Sandford, Clive Cussler, Tom Clancy, Lisa Scottoline, and others.

Publishing houses want a built-in audience The advantage of publishing celebrity books is that they have a built-in audience. In some of the cases, the reason they are paying big money is because the person has a big platform. And if that platform is there for the advertising, then the spend might be lower. —Jennifer Rudolph Walsh, former Agent Macmillan agrees.

Q. Would you agree that those type of authors, meaning the ones with the built-in audience, are also authors who would command a high advance if they went to a traditional publisher like Macmillan or PRH? A. That’s a broad brush. But, yes… Q. And you’re willing to pay more if they have a significant following? A. Yes. —Donald Weisberg, CEO, Macmillan Publishers

A big audience means publishing houses don’t have to spend money on marketing These big advances, the authors have quite a bit of their own infrastructure with them. They have their own publicists. They have their own social media people. They have their own newsletters. So they actually are able —we are able to offload a good amount of the work, not all the time, but that is actually a factor in why we sometimes pay these big advances, because the authors are actually capable of helping us a lot. —Jonathan Karp, CEO, Simon & Schuster For example:

Q. Who is the best selling Simon & Schuster author currently?
A. Right now it’s Colleen Hoover.
Q. Does she have the highest marketing budget that Simon & Schuster pays?
A. No.
Q. Why is that?
A. She’s the queen of TikTok, and so she has a huge following on TikTok. —Jonathan Karp, CEO, Simon & Schuster

Publishing houses pay for Amazon placement Every second book in America, ballpark, is being sold via e-commerce… Amazon. com has 50 million books available. A bookstore, a good independent bookstore, has around 50,000 different books available… an algorithm decides what is being presented and made visible and discoverable for an end consumer online. It makes a huge difference. —Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Random House

Publishing houses try to game the algorithm and even pay to get ahead of it.
Q. Penguin Random House has hired data scientists to try and figure out these algorithms so that its books get better presented on Amazon than its competitors’ books?
A. One of the many efforts that we pursue, correct.
Q. And Penguin Random House pays Amazon to improve its search results?
A. There is something that is available to our publishers, it’s called Amazon Marketing Services, AMS, and all publishers can spend money and give it to Amazon to have hopefully better search results. —Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Random House

But even celebrity books don’t sell… Ayesha Pande, president of Ayesha Pande Literary, says that 20% of her authors earn out their advance —if she’s being generous. The single most important contract term is the advance… Because in a large number of cases, it may be the only compensation that the author will receive for their work. —Ayesha Pande, President, Ayesha Pande Literary

Even celebrity books flop. There are plenty of books that we spend $1 million on the advance and published them last year and they did not even make the top 1,000 on BookScan… Less than 45% of those books [that we spend a million dollars on] end up on that thousand best seller list. —Madeline Mcintosh, CEO, Penguin Random House US

Having a lot of social media followers or fame doesn’t guarantee it will sell. The singer Billie Eilish, despite her 97 million Instagram followers and 6 million Twitter followers, sold only 64,000 copies within eight months of publishing her book. The singer Justin Timberlake sold only 100,000 copies in the three years after he published his book. Snoop Dog’s cookbook saw a boost during the pandemic, but he still only sold 205,000 copies in 2020.

Books don’t make money If I look at the top 10% of books… that 10% level gets you to about 300,000 copies sold in that year. And if you told me I’m definitely going to sell 300,000 copies in a year, I would spend many millions of dollars to get that book. —Madeline Mcintosh, CEO, Penguin Random House US

Publishing houses pay millions of dollars for a book that sells only 300,000 copies??? Well, because books don’t sell a lot of copies, they don’t make a lot of money. According to Hill, 85% of the books with advances of $250,000 and up never earn out their advance. (Meaning the royalties earned never covered the cost of the advance.) Very, very frequently, the winning bid in our calculation is a money loser. —Michael Pietsch, CEO, Hachette

Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Random House, says the top 4% of titles drive 60% of the profitability. That goes for the rest of them too: It would be just a couple of books in every hundred are driving that degree of profit… twoish books account for the lion’s share of profitability. —Madeline Mcintosh, CEO, Penguin Random House US

About half of the books we publish make money, and a much lower percentage of them earn back the advance we pay. —Jonathan Karp, CEO, Simon & Schuster

Many publishers have realized that maybe those big advances aren’t worth it. We have a report that we colloquially call ‘The Ones That Got Away.’ And it’s a report on the books where we bid $500,000 or more as an advance and did not succeed in acquiring the book… this report stands as a kind of caution against the high risk of big advances because the lesson we take away again and again is: Thank goodness we stopped bidding when we did because even at the advance we offered, we would have lost money… Very frequently, the winning bid in our calculation is a money loser. —Michael Pietsch, CEO, Hachette

It’s all about the backlist If new books typically don’t sell well, well that’s why publishing houses make their revenue from their backlist. I would actually expect a book that is selling 300,000 units in a year is probably going to sell at least 400,000 or 500,000 over its life once you get backlist in there too. Our backlist brings in about a third of our annual revenues, so $300 million a year roughly, a little less. —Michael Pietsch, CEO, Hachette

The backlist includes all of the books that have ever come out. Brian Murray, CEO of HarperCollins, points out that their backlist includes bibles (an $80 million business), coloring books, dictionaries, encyclopedias, magic trick books, calendars, puzzles, and SAT study guides. It also includes perennial bestsellers like Don Quijote, Steven King’s Carrie, and Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings —these books continue to sell year after year. Popular children’s books are cash cows selling huge amounts of copies year after year and generation after generation.

For instance, Penguin Random House owns Eric Carle’s Very Hungry Caterpillar intellectual property. The book has been on Publisher Weekly’s bestseller list every week for 19 years. Children’s books comprised 27% of PRH’s sales in 2021. That’s about $725 million —so roughly double the size of Scholastic’s trade division, and more or less equal on its own to all of Macmillan or HBG. Christian books accounted for 2%. —The Trial

Backlist titles like The Bible and Very Hungry Caterpillar and Lord of the Rings make up a disproportionately large percentage of the publishing industry.

Amazon is the biggest threat to the industry
Q. Are you concerned that Amazon will favor Penguin Random House Simon & Schuster in terms of promotion and distribution and discoverability?
A. Yes. —Donald Weisberg, CEO, Macmillan Publishers

With Amazon’s data, they could immediately beat out all the publishing houses if they wanted to. I think Amazon as a publisher of books is underestimated. They have about 50 editors… Obviously, given the number of people searching on Amazon for products, that gives them a huge advantage because when people go onto Amazon, they —if the book isn’t there for what they are searching for, they could create that book. That’s one theory I have. But even if that doesn’t happen, they know what people are buying and they have access to that data. Their bestseller list, in my view, is more important than The New York Times best seller list because it’s in realtime. It’s hourly. And I look at that Amazon best seller list regularly, every day. —Jonathan Karp, CEO, Simon & Schuster

A “Netflix of Books” would put publishing houses out of business Wouldn’t it be great if you could pay $9.99 a month and read all of the books you want? Just like you get all the movies you want from Netflix? Or all the music you want from Spotify? Technically, it does exist. Kindle Unlimited is the largest, followed by Scribd. Audible isn’t quite all-access, but then Spotify got into audiobooks and made them so. But none of these players have quite taken off the way Netflix or Spotify has. That’s for one reason: The Big Five publishing houses refuse to let their authors participate.
Q. No books are found on Kindle Unlimited? Because you think that’ll be had for the industry?
A. We think it’s going to destroy the publishing industry. —Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Publishing House

He’s right. No one would purchase a book again. We all know about Netflix, we all know about Spotify and other media categories, and we also know what it has done to some industries… The music industry has lost, in the digital transformation, approximately 50% of its overall revenue pool. —Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Publishing House

There’s one reason. Around 20 to 25% of the readers, the heavy readers, account for 80% of the revenue pool of the industry of what consumers spend on books. It’s the really dedicated readers. If they got all-access, the revenue pool of the industry is going to be very small. Physical retail will be gone —see music— within two to three years. And we will be dependent on a few Silicon Valley or Swedish internet companies that will actually provide all-access. —Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Publishing House

The publishing industry would die, that’s for sure. But I’d be willing to bet writers would get their books read way more. And I think it’s on its way. Spotify has already started publishing audiobooks, and my money is on Substack for eventually publishing written books!

Authors are getting more independent If publishing houses make minimal investment in marketing their authors and focus largely on celebrity books and their backlist, authors who can’t snag a large advance might have better luck building their own audience and publishing elsewhere. I think really from the advent of online —really, once the internet became popular, you know, we heard the phrase disintermediation. And I don’t understand why that wouldn’t be a possible prospect for any best selling author, to just disintermediate, to go straight to the internet and sell directly if you have a following… Colleen Hoover has published with both Amazon and Simon & Schuster. And her Amazon book was on the independent book sellers’ best seller list. So what that says to me is that a Rubicon has been crossed. —Jonathan Karp, CEO, Simon & Schuster

The romance category has already gone independent. Many of those heavy readers of romance novels at that time switched to selfpublished stories. A very different price point. [...] —Markus Dohle, CEO, Penguin Random House

Gallery author Anna Todd moved to self-publishing (though Todd began her career writing on Wattpad, and recently returned to set up an imprint at Wattpad Books). —Jennifer Bergstrom, SVP, Gallery Books Group

Another publishing house bites the dust After the Judge denied the merger, Penguin went through a massive round of layoffs and Simon & Schuster was sold to a private equity company instead. Private equity tends to have one game plan: buy a company, load it with debt, wring out costs to improve its financials, sell at a profit. Dealing Simon & Schuster to private equity, The New Republic warned at the time with some slight hyperbole of its own, would mean “absolute devastation and wholesale job loss.” —ken whyte

The publishing houses may live to see another day, but I don’t think their model is long for this world. Unless you are a celebrity or franchise author, the publishing model won’t provide a whole lot more than a tiny advance and a dozen readers. If you are a celebrity, you’ll still have a much bigger reach on Instagram than you will with your book! Personally, I could not be more grateful to skip the publishing houses altogether and write directly for my readers here, being supported by those who read this newsletter rather than by a publishing advance that won’t ultimately translate to people reading my work.

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BACHELOR’S DEGREE in Environmental Science


The Bachelor of Environmental Science (BS) program helps students develop practical skills and knowledge required to critically evaluate environmental problems and provide applied solutions. The major is interdisciplinary in nature, focusing on the underlying natural processes relating to the environment and understanding and employing the scientific method. The Bachelor of Environmental Science program is offered online via distance learning. After evaluating both academic record and life experience, AIU staff working in conjunction with Faculty and Academic Advisors will assist students in setting up a custom-made program. This flexibility to meet student needs is seldom found in other distance learning programs. Our online program does not require all students to take the same subjects/courses, use the same books, or learning materials. Instead, the online Bachelor of Environmental Science curriculum specifically addresses strengths and weaknesses with respect to market opportunities in the student’s major and intended field of work. Understanding that industry and geographic factors should influence the content of the curriculum instead of a standardized one-fits-all design is the hallmark of AIU’s unique approach to adult education. This philosophy addresses the dynamic and constantly changing environment of working professionals by helping adult students in reaching their professional and personal goals within the scope of the degree program.


Below is an example of the topics or areas you may develop and work on during your studies. By no means is it a complete or required list as AIU programs do not follow a standardized curriculum. It is meant solely as a reference point and example. Want to learn more about the curriculum design at AIU? Go ahead and visit our website, especially the Course and Curriculum section: academic-freedom-and-open-curriculum/

Orientation Courses:

Communication & Investigation (Comprehensive Resume)
Organization Theory (Portfolio)
Experiential Learning (Autobiography)
Academic Evaluation (Questionnaire)
Fundament of Knowledge (Integration Chart)
Fundamental Principles I (Philosophy of Education) Professional Evaluation (Self Evaluation Matrix)
Development of Graduate Study (Guarantee of an Academic Degree)

Core Courses and Topics

Earth Materials and the Environment
Global Change
Spatial Analysis and GIS
Environmental Field
Natural Resource Management
Earth System Processes
Soils and Landscapes
Introduction to Statistics & Probability
Ecosystem Analysis
River and Floodplain Ecology
Evolution of the Earth
Environmental Processes
Environmental Geochemistry
Soil Science

Research Project

Bachelor Thesis Project
MBM300 Thesis Proposal
MBM302 Bachelor Thesis (5,000 words)


Each graduate is encouraged to publish their research papers either online in the public domain or through professional journals and periodicals worldwide.

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Submit your Online Application, paste your resume and any additional comments/ questions in the area provided.

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About Us


Atlantic International University offers distance learning degree programs for adult learners at bachelors, masters, and doctoral level. With self paced program taken online, AIU lifts the obstacles that keep professional adults from completing their educational goals. Programs are available throughout a wide range of majors and areas of study. All of this with a philosophically holistic approach towards education fitting within the balance of your life and acknowledging the key role each individual can play in their community, country, and the world. Atlantic International University is accredited by the Accreditation Service for International Schools, Colleges and Universities (ASIC). ASIC Accreditation is an internationally renowned quality standard for colleges and universities. Visit ASIC’s Directory of Accredited Colleges and Universities. ASIC is a member of CHEA International Quality Group (CIQG) in the USA, an approved accreditation body by the Ministerial Department of the Home Office in the UK, and is listed in the International Directory of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). The University is based in the United States and was established by corporate charter in 1998.

Our founding principles are based on the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights; per article 26, AIU believes that Higher Education is a Human Right. The University has implemented a paradigm shifting educational model for its academic programs that have allowed it to move closer to this goal through the self-empowerment of its students, decentralization of the learning process, personalized open curriculum design, a sustainable learning model, developing 11 core elements of the Human Condition within MYAIU, and utilizing the quasi-infinite knowledge through the use of information technology combined with our own capacity to find solutions to all types of global issues, dynamic problems, and those of individuals and multidisciplinary teams. Due to these differentiations and the university’s mission, only a reputable accrediting agency with the vision and plasticity to integrate and adapt its processes around AIU’s proven and successful innovative programs could be selected. Unfortunately, the vast majority of accrediting agencies adhere to and follow obsolete processes and requirements that have outlived their usefulness and are in direct conflict with the university’s mission of offering a unique, dynamic, affordable, quality higher education to the nontraditional student (one who must work, study what he really needs for professional advancement, attend family issues, etc.). We believe that adopting outdated requirements and processes would impose increased financial burdens on students while severely limiting their opportunities to earn their degree and advance in all aspects. Thus, in selecting the ASIC as its accrediting agency, AIU ensured that its unique programs would not be transformed into a copy or clone of those offered by the 10,000+ colleges and universities around the world. Since ASIC is an international accrediting agency based outside the United States, we are required by statute HRS446E to place the following disclaimer: ATLANTIC INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY IS NOT ACCREDITED BY AN ACCREDITING AGENCY RECOGNIZED BY THE UNITED STATES SECRETARY OF EDUCATION. Note: In the United States and abroad, many licensing authorities require accredited degrees as the basis for eligibility for licensing.

In some cases, accredited colleges may not accept for transfer courses and degrees completed at unaccredited colleges, and some employers may require an accredited degree as a basis for eligibility for employment. Potential students should consider how the above may affect their interests, AIU respects the unique rules and regulations of each country and does not seek to influence the respective authorities. In the event that a prospective student wishes to carry out any government review or process in regards to his university degree, we recommend that the requirements of such are explored in detail with the relevant authorities by the prospective student as the university does not intervene in such processes. AIU students can be found in over 180 countries, they actively participate and volunteer in their communities as part of their academic program and have allocated thousands of service hours to diverse causes and initiatives. AIU programs follow the standards commonly used by colleges and universities in the United States with regards to the following: academic program structure, degree issued, transcript, and other graduation documents. AIU graduation documents can include an apostille and authentication from the US Department of State to facilitate their use internationally.

The AIU Difference

It is acknowledged that the act of learning is endogenous, (from within), rather than exogenous.

This fact is the underlying rationale for “Distance Learning”, in all of the programs offered by AIU. The combination of the underlying principles of student “self instruction”, (with guidance), collaborative development of curriculum unique to each student, and flexibility of time and place of study, provides the ideal learning environment to satisfy individual needs.

AIU is an institution of experiential learning and nontraditional education at a distance. There are no classrooms and attendance is not required.

Mission & Vision


To be a higher learning institution concerned about generating cultural development alternatives likely to be sustained in order to lead to a more efficient administration of the world village and its environment; exerting human and community rights through diversity with the ultimate goal of the satisfaction and evolution of the world.


The empowerment of the individual towards the convergence of the world through a sustainable educational design based on andragogy and omniology.

Organizational Structure

Dr. Franklin Valcin
Presi den t/Academic Dean
Dr. José Mercado
Chief Executive Officer
Chairman of the Board of Trustees
Ricardo González, PhD
Dr. Ricardo Gonzalez
Chief Operation Officer
and MKT Director
Linda Collazo
Logistics Coordinator

AIU Tutors Coordinators:

Deborah Rodriguez
Amiakhor Ejaeta
Amanda Gutierrez
William Mora
Miriam James

Admissions Coordinators:
Amalia Aldrett
Sandra Garcia
Junko Shimizu
Veronica Amuz
Alba Ochoa
Jenis Garcia
Judith Brown
Chris Soto
René Cordón
Dr. Anderas Rissler

Academic Coordinators:
Dr. Adesida Oluwafemi
Dr. Emmanuel Gbagu
Dr. Lucia Gorea
Dr. Edgar Colon
Dr. Mario Rios
Freddy Frejus
Dr. Nilani Ljunggren
De Silva
Dr. Scott Wilson
Dr. Mohammad Shaidul Islam
Dr. Miriam Garibaldi
Vice provost for Research
Carolina Valdes
Human Resource Coordinator
Dr. Ofelia Miller
Director of AIU
Carlos Aponte
Teleco mmunications Coordinator
Clara Margalef
Director of Special Projects
of AIU
David Jung
Corporate/Legal Counsel
Juan Pablo Moreno
Director of Operations
Bruce Kim
Paula Viera
Director of Intelligence Systems
Thomas Kim
Accounting Counsel
Felipe Gomez
Design Director / IT Supervisor
Maricela Esparza
Administrative Coordinator
Kevin Moll
Web Designer
Chris Benjamin
IT and Hosting Support
Daritza Ysla
IT Coordinator
Maria Pastrana
Accounting Coordinator
Daritza Ysla
IT Coordinator
Roberto Aldrett
Communications Coordinator
Nadeem Awan
Chief Programming Officer
Giovanni Castillo
IT Support
Dr. Edward Lambert
Academic Director
Antonella Fonseca
Quality Control & Data Analysis
Dr. Ariadna Romero
Advisor Coordinator
Adrián Varela
Graphic Design
Jhanzaib Awan
Senior Programmer
Vanesa D’Angelo
Content Writer
Leonardo Salas
Human Resource Manager
Jaime Rotlewicz
Dean of Admissions
Benjamin Joseph
IT and Technology Support
Michael Phillips
Registrar’s Office
Rosie Perez
Finance Coordinator


School of Business and Economics

The School of Business and Economics allows aspiring and practicing professionals, managers, and entrepreneurs in the private and public sectors to complete a self paced distance learning degree program of the highest academic standard. The ultimate goal is to empower learners and help them take advantage of the enormous array of resources from the world environment in order to eliminate the current continuum of poverty and limitations. Degree programs are designed for those students whose professional experience has been in business, marketing, administration, economics, finance and management.

Areas of Study:

Accounting, Advertising, Banking, Business Administration, Communications, Ecommerce, Finance, Foreign Affairs, Home Economics, Human Resources, International Business, International Finance, Investing, Globalization, Marketing, Management, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, Public Administrations, Sustainable Development, Public Relations, Telecommunications, Tourism, Trade.

School of Social and Human Studies

The School of Social and Human Studies is focused on to the development of studies which instill a core commitment to building a society based on social and economic justice and enhancing opportunities for human well being. The founding principles lie on the basic right of education as outlined in the Declaration of Human Rights. We instill in our students a sense of confidence and self reliance in their ability to access the vast opportunities available through information channels, the world wide web, private, public, nonprofit, and nongovernmental organizations in an ever expanding global community. Degree programs are aimed towards those whose professional life has been related to social and human behavior, with the arts, or with cultural studies.

Areas of Study:

Psychology, International Affairs, Sociology, Political Sciences, Architecture, Legal Studies, Public Administration, Literature and languages, Art History, Ministry, African Studies, Middle Eastern Studies, Asian Studies, European Studies, Islamic Studies, Religious Studies.

School of Science and Engineering

The School of Science and Engineering seeks to provide dynamic, integrated, and challenging degree programs designed for those whose experience is in industrial research, scientific production, engineering and the general sciences. Our system for research and education will keep us apace with the twenty-first century reach scientific advance in an environmentally and ecologically responsible manner to allow for the sustainability of the human population. We will foster among our students a demand for ethical behavior, an appreciation for diversity, an understanding of scientific investigation, knowledge of design innovation, a critical appreciation for the importance of technology and technological change for the advancement of humanity.

Areas of Study:

Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, Communications, Petroleum Science, Information Technology, Telecommunications, Nutrition Science, Agricultural Science, Computer Science, Sports Science, Renewable Energy, Geology, Urban Planning.

Online Library Resources

With access to a global catalog created and maintained collectively by more than 9,000 participating institutions, AIU students have secured excellent research tools for their study programs.

The AIU online library contains over 2 billion records and over 300 million bibliographic records that are increasing day by day. The sources spanning thousands of years and virtually all forms of human expression. There are files of all kinds, from antique inscribed stones to e-books, form wax engravings to MP3s, DVDs and websites. In addition to the archives, the library AIU Online offers electronic access to more than 149,000 e-books, dozens of databases and more than 13 million full-text articles with pictures included. Being able to access 60 databases and 2393 periodicals with more than 18 million items, guarantees the information required to perform the assigned research project. Users will find that many files are enriched with artistic creations on the covers, indexes, reviews, summaries and other information.

The records usually have information attached from important libraries. The user can quickly assess the relevance of the information and decide if it is the right source.

Education on the 21st century

AIU is striving to regain the significance of the concept of education, which is rooted into the Latin “educare”, meaning “to pull out”, breaking loose from the paradigm of most 21st century universities with their focus on “digging and placing information” into students’ heads rather than teaching them to think. For AIU, the generation of “clones” that some traditional universities are spreading throughout the real world is one of the most salient reasons for today’s ills. In fact, students trained at those educational institutions never feel a desire to “change the world” or the current status quo; instead, they adjust to the environment, believe everything is fine, and are proud of it all.

IN A WORLD where knowledge and mostly information expire just like milk, we must reinvent university as a whole in which each student, as the key player, is UNIQUE within an intertwined environment. This century’s university must generate new knowledge bits although this may entail its separation from both the administrative bureaucracy and the faculty that evolve there as well. AIU thinks that a university should be increasingly integrated into the “real world”, society, the economy, and the holistic human being. As such, it should concentrate on its ultimate goal, which is the student, and get him/her deeply immersed into a daily praxis of paradigm shifts, along with the Internet and research, all these being presently accessible only to a small minority of the world community. AIU students must accomplish their self-learning mission while conceptualizing it as the core of daily life values through the type of experiences that lead to a human being’s progress when information is converted into education. The entire AIU family must think of the university as a setting that values diversity and talent in a way that trains mankind not only for the present but above all for a future that calls everyday for professionals who empower themselves in academic and professional areas highly in demand in our modern society. We shall not forget that, at AIU, students are responsible for discovering their own talents and potential, which they must auto-develop in such a way that the whole finish product opens up as a flower that blossoms every year more openly.

THE AIU STANCE is against the idea of the campus as a getaway from day-to-day pressure since we believe reality is the best potential-enhancer ever; one truly learns through thinking, brainstorming ideas, which leads to new solutions, and ultimately the rebirth of a human being fully integrated in a sustainable world environment. Self-learning is actualized more from within than a top-down vantage point, that is to say, to influence instead of requesting, ideas more than power. We need to create a society where solidarity, culture, life, not political or economic rationalism and more than techno structures, are prioritized. In short, the characteristics of AIU students and alumni remain independence, creativity, self-confidence, and ability to take risk towards new endeavors. This is about people’s worth based not on what they know but on what they do with what they know.

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AIU Service

AIU offers educational opportunities in the USA to adults from around the world so that they can use their own potential to manage their personal, global cultural development. The foundational axis of our philosophy lies upon self-actualized knowledge and information, with no room for obsoleteness, which is embedded into a DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM based on ANDRAGOGY and OMNIOLOGY. The ultimate goal of this paradigm is to empower learners and help them take advantage of the enormous array of resources from the world environment in order to eliminate the current continuum of poverty and limitations.

This will become a crude reality with respect for, and practice of, human and community rights through experiences, investigations, practicum work, and/ or examinations. Everything takes place in a setting that fosters diversity; with advisors and consultants with doctorate degrees and specializations in Human Development monitor learning processes, in addition to a worldwide web of colleagues and associations, so that they can reach the satisfaction and the progress of humanity with peace and harmony.

Contact us to get started

Now, it’s possible to earn your degree in the comfort of your own home. For additional information or to see if you qualify for admissions please contact us.

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