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Ricardo Taylor
Title: Introduction to Conflict Resolution
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In the process of completing my curriculum design, I realized that in pursuit of completing a doctoral degree, and as I consider the human aspect of my platform, I will need to refresh, increase and improve my knowledge in conflict resolution. I have considered that as an Adjunct to the University of the Bahamas, and indeed wherever my studies may afford me new opportunities, I may be called upon to assist in addressing some matter of conflict which may require intervention. If I am to intervene, I would need to have the information, knowledge and skills necessary to approach such a matter with confidence and at minimum the theoretical information with which to do so. Hence, I decided once again to tweak my curriculum design to accommodate that very important aspect and course to enhance and diversify my knowledge base and to broaden my horizon.

I hope to uncover any new methods and procedures necessary to provide illuminating and new knowledge to aid and enhance my skills and abilities as it relates to conflict resolution. I want to know, what is conflict resolution? What happens during the process? What does the process involve? Why is conflict resolution needed? What impact can this new knowledge have on my life and what contributions can I make using this knowledge to positively impact those with whom I may come into contact? I want to become an efficient and effective communicator and mediator.

Body of Assignment
● 1. How would you define conflict resolution?
I would define conflict is a situation or matter in which there is a disagreement between two or more persons or parties in which one side is at odds with the other, in a matter that needs reconciliation and resolution.

● 2. What is the difference between mutual gains and competitive negotiation tactics?

The difference between mutual gains and competitive negotiation tactics is maturity. Mutual gains seeks to provide both parties of a conflict with benefits so that there is an understanding to come to a resolution in spite of the fact that no one side is able to achieve all of the benefits and or advantages that they seek in a given situation. Mutual benefits is an approach in which a reasonable level of maturity takes control of the negotiations and seeks the most plausible and positives ways in which to give each side of the conflicts as many positive beneficial outcomes of the resolution as possible.

Maturity is used as a characteristic to support this positon because it brings with it a level of experience. Experience is noun and for individuals who possess it, a qualification that is almost often sort after for employment, education and adjudication so that the skills it brings to the table are used for its’ utmost positive beneficial outcomes.

(Lambert, 2019) “Competitive approaches tent to result in win-lose outcomes in which only one side perceives the outcome as positive. Such outcomes are less likely to be accepted voluntarily, especially by the loser. A competitive approach to conflict tends to increase animosity and distrust between parties and is generally considered destructive”.

Unfortunately, while it is often times present in the individuals using the competitive approach to resolution, maturity sometimes seems devoid in the negotiation process. That is because the individuals seeking the approach on behalf of themselves of their parties or company take an arrogant, self-serving position, in which they seek all of the beneficial advantages in total and complete disregard to the other party.

Or the approach is that if there is any resolution in the matter, their side must be seen to have gained more than the other side with no sense of equity or thought thereof given to the views, consideration and opinions of their opponents.

● 3. Why is it difficult to address underlying causes of conflict?
It is difficult to address the underlying causes of conflict because as mentioned in the webinar, people have their own set of principles, beliefs, attitude and experiences based on their demographics, culture and ideologies. Often times these ideologies are in conflict with one another when there are opposing view and beliefs on a matter.

In these circumstances, both sides believe that there opinion or position is right and no side wants to concede to the others position on the matter. Hence, these parties find themselves at odds with each other and therein lies the conflict. The difficulty presents itself because once either party is true to their convictions then no side with concede to the other.

It will take many approaches including compromising and collaborating using the processes of conciliation and mediation to assist in bringing some level of resolve to this conflict at hand. Far too often when it is difficult to reach some resolution in these circumstances, we may find as in the conflicts among governments and nations, that the negotiations end is disgust, hatred, malice, tension and ultimately war.

● 4. What is conflict transformation?
(Lambert, 2019). “Conflict transformation suggests that the destructive consequences of a conflict can be modified or transformed so that self-images, relationships, and social structures improve as a result of conflict”.

Conflict transformation is the positive results of the successful resolution on a matter where two or more individuals or parties were at odds with each other.

Conflict transformation brings about experience, insight, education and maturity. This reality brings about changes within and among individuals, helping them to move to a new way of thinking, understanding, existing and co-existing for the common good and betterment of a people or society. The experience is that the process of undergoing the negotiations with its’ inherent back and forth on an issue, provide the tactical aspect of the lesson in a given matter of conflict.

The insight is the actual new viewpoints and other-oriented aspects of the conflict which exposes the individuals or parties to a new way of seeing and thinking on a given matter; a process which can be stored as a programmed decision to assist in addressing other similar conflicts. The education is the new knowledge as a result of the new experience and insight, which when now added to education culminates in maturity as a result of this exposure.

● 5. What is conciliation and mediation?
Denotatively, conciliation and mediation is one in the same, however based a various aspects and approaches and in the context in which these words are used, there are also can be separated connotatively in an effort to support and accentuate other perspectives and meaning on these words.

Therefore, as it relates to conflict resolution, conciliation is pacification, or appeasement, or reconciliation, and or resolution. All of these denotations are one in the same and used interchangeably to assist in coming to some common understanding toward reconciliation. One side has to pacify (as if in bringing comfort to a baby), the other so as to at least begin the process of appeasement to reach reconciliation and final resolution.

On the other hand, mediation which is also conciliation denotatively is also intervention on the part of another (a third party. (Boone & Kurtz 2010 p. 275). Mediation is the process of settling – labor-management disputes trough an impartial third party. This third party either an individual or a group serve to bring experience, education, wisdom, knowledge and objectivity to the conflict resolution and negotiation process. The third part because of its’ experience in dealing with other if not similar matters, brings a new prospective to the issue.

This party comes equipped and qualified in addition to the experience with the education necessary to provide enlightenment and consequently new knowledge to the process. Consequently, with experience, education, wisdom and new knowledge present at the negotiation table, this matter will fortunately get the objectivity necessary by way of this mediation process to bring resolution to the matter in conflict.

● 6. Explain the 5 approaches to Conflict Resolution; Avoiding, Accommodating, Dominating, Compromising and Collaborating.
Avoiding – is the process by individual or parties to a conflict making and taking predetermined, intentional and deliberate actions and steps to stay away from each other. This attitude only prolongs the conflict and is an immature and unwise approach to conflict resolution.

Accommodating – is the process by individuals or parties to a conflict to each in quite the opposite approach to avoiding the matter or parties in conflict. Accommodating is a mature, respectful, optimistic and sensible approach to conflict resolution. It indicates form one party to another, that we are willing and able to meet, discuss and present possible ideas and suggestions to bring the matter to a resolution for the mutual benefit of all concerned.

Dominating - is the process by individuals or parties to a conflict to engage in an attitude of arrogance, and intentional “:bullying” behavior to overcome and subdue the other party to a negotiating process. This is a posture to sometimes irritate, intimidate, dissuade, frustrate and to belittle the other side of a dispute to a position of inferiority and belittlement. In such situations, there is no positive outcome to the negotiation process, and it there would be, this would be a lop side (win-lose) situation as in the case of a competitive approach to negotiation. In these instances, Lambert (2019), opined that “Such outcomes are less likely to be accepted voluntarily, especially by the loser.

A competitive approach to conflict tends to increase animosity and distrust between parties and is generally considered destructive”.

Compromising – in this approach toward conflict resolution, both parties engage in a mature, educated, wise, considered and optimistic approach with hopes to reaching a reasonable resolution. Both parties are prepared to meet, listen, discuss, accept where possible and object when and where necessary; and are ready to give up or lose some possible advantages in an effort to have both sides satisfactorily come to a mutually beneficial decision.

Collaborating – in this process both individuals or parties to a matter in conflict are prepared to work together to reach resolution. While they may not easily or readily compromise, there are a lot of similarities in the collaborating approach when compared to the comprising approach. The collaborative approach like the compromising approach also brings to the table maturity, education, wisdom, consideration and optimism in hope to reach a mutually beneficial outcome. A combination of the compromising and collaborating approach is a remedy for conflict resolution not only between individuals and parties, but is highly recommended for governments and nations worldwide.

● 7. What is the difference between positional bargaining and principled negotiation?
Positional bargaining is an approach to conflict resolution in which individuals or parties come to the negotiating table with a set of predetermined decisions and objectives for which they are not welling to either compromise and sometimes unwilling to collaborate. This approach is arrogant, rude, disrespectful, careless, inconsiderate and unfriendly, especially in situations where it is not based on human rights and other principled arguments.

Conversely, the principled bargaining approach to a conflict resolution involves individuals and parties to the matter in conflict, coming to the table with reasoned, verifiable and justifiable positons and arguments that are often time based on human rights and strong ethical beliefs and convictions that may have a significant impact on humanity. In this instances, often times the individual and parties may seem very determined and matter of fact, as in the case of positional bargaining, but unlike positional bargaining, the caused in principled bargaining have a more meaningful and significant impact as it relates to the good of a people or society.

● 8. In your opinion, what conflict in the world is most important to resolve and why?
I believe that greed is one of the most outstanding issues as it relates to countries that results in war making it one the most important issues that needs to be resolved, by it is because of greed. Among dominating, arrogant, dictatorial and greedy nations, is an insatiable appetite to gain and achieve more politically, economically and as a means of status so as to be recognized as the most prominent and dominant nation in the world. The attempt to receive such recognition comes with a lack of regard, respect, inconsideration and nonchalance for humanity in many areas of the world. Some world leaders are not concerned with civility, peace and humanity, but rather positioning oneself as a “god” for purely selfish and self-serving reasons. .

Many countries will do well to engage in a process using better means of negotiation. (Boone & Kurtz, 2010, pae 274). Collective Bargaining is a process of negotiating between management and union representative. More relatively, leaders and nations and or their representatives would do well to come together collectively to bargain and negotiate on matters of national concerns with international implications in the best interest of their respective countries.

Whenever there is more regard, decency, respect for others, humanity and civility is awakened and activated in the minds and hearts of these ruthless and mean-spirited leaders, the world will experience conflict resolution saturated with compromise and collaboration to a point the brings about respect for one another and peace and harmony in the world.

Conclusion Conflict Resolution is the process of acquiring new knowledge and skills that will bring about a sense of education, maturity and objectivity when dealing with matters that need resolution. One would do well to avoid the competitive and positioned approaches to resolution and will do better to engage the processes of engagement, conciliation, mediation, compromise and collaboration to reach the ultimate goal of a mutually beneficial resolution in which the outcome results in a win-win resolution.

Atlantic International University. (Dr. Edward Lambert). (2019). Introduction To Conflict
Resolution. [Video webinar]. Retrieved from
Boone, L, & Kurtz, D, (2010). Contemporary Business 14th. Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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