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Catherine Garcia
Title: Theories & Models Of Leadership
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Leadership is a mysterious and elusive concept. What we read as
history is really the creation of myths. From an ordinary person, society
creates a Napoleon or Gandhi, a Martin Luther King Jr. or Joan of Arc,
someone who acquires mythic status as a shaper of destiny.

We know the first steps of how this transformation occurs. Every
group naturally gives rise to leaders who guide their followers to a shared
goal. Yet some leaders fail while others succeed. Some are destroyed by
flawed strategy or by the overwhelming stress of their role. And when a
crisis arises that calls for great leaders, there is a constant fear that such a
figure will not appear, leaving the infamous "leadership vacuum" that has
become a chronic problem in modern society.

Leaders emerge from ordinary lives. In the deeper reality, a company
without vision, a school without heart or a nation struggling toward a new
level of freedom need to respond to hidden spiritual drives. Once this is
understood, leaders can be made who rise to the highest levels of greatness.
Any person, man or woman, can begin on the same road, not by being born a
leader but by looking inward.


Our souls offer the highest inspiration at every moment. We see
chaos, but the soul knows that order is more powerful than disorder. Until
we get that message, we fall back on old habits and stale answers to new
challenges. We become stuck in pointless struggles and confusion. Yet
someone who has setout to become a leader will succeed by cutting through
the fog using fundamental spiritual rules. (1)

In any group members act out two basic themes in life (need and
response) if we could see ourselves clearly each of us would realize that
every day there is:

Something we need, ranging from the primitive need for food and
shelter to the higher needs of self worth, love and spiritual meaning; and
some response to fill that need, ranging from struggle and competition to
creative discovery and divine inspiration. (2)

These two themes dominate our inner life. They override all external
goals, and they are not random.


Some basic models and Principles of leadership that seem to come
into play include the following:


1. Leaders and followers co-create each other. They form an invisible
spiritual bond.

2. A leader is the symbolic soul of the group. The soul is an
expression of who we are.

3. Inner qualities determine results. The outcome of any situation is
defined in advance by the vision that goes into solving it.

4. A leader must understand the hierarchy of needs.

5. Understanding need and response leads to success. The leader who
understands the hierarchy of need and response will succeed. (4)

Additional models of leadership include simple concepts such as:

1. look and listen
2. empowerment
3. awareness
4. doing
5. responsibility

As we look further into models of leadership Bolman and Deals Theory of
Four ­ Frame Leadership styles apply: (5)


The four models are The Structural Frame, Human Resource Frame,
Political Frame, and Symbolic Frame.

The Structural Frame emphasizes efficiency and effectiveness. Structural
leaders make the rational decision over personal and strive to achieve
organizational goals and objectives through coordination and control. They
value accountability and critical analyses.

The Human Resource Frame emphasizes the individual. Human resource
leaders value comaderie and harmony within the work environment, and
strive to achieve organizational goals through meaningful and satisfying

The Political Frame emphasizes meaning. Symbolic leaders value the
subjective and strive to achieve organizational goals through negotiation and

The Symbolic Frame emphasizes meaning. Symbolic leaders value the
subjective and strive to achieve organizational goals through rituals &
Source Bolman and Deal (1992 ­ 1997). (6)


Additional models of leadership include the Quinns competiting Values
Model. (7)

Human Relations Model:

The motivator (commitment) Facilitator: Facilitators emphasize a concern
for morale and cohesion. They value interpersonal skills and strive to
achieve organizational goals through process. Facilators are adept at
mediation and problem solving. (alpha. 85)

Mentor: Mentors emphasize a concern for sensitivity and consideration.
They value the development of individuals and strive to achieve
organizational goals by being open and fair.

Internal Process Model: The Analyzer monitor: emphasize rules and quotes.
They value measurement and documentation, and strive to achieve
organizational goals through rational & technical analysis.

Coordinator: Coordinators emphasize structure and stability. They value
reliability and continuity and strive to achieve the goals of the organization
through control evaluation.

Rational Goal Model ­ The task master producer: Produces emphasize focus
and accomplishment. They value motivation and productivity and strive to
achieve organizational goals through stimulating workers to accomplish


Director: Directors emphasize direction and planning. They value goal
clarification and decisiveness and strive to achieve organizational goals
through establishing and defining roles and tasks.

Innovator: Innovators emphasize expansion and adaptation. They value
image and reputation and strive to achieve organizational goals through
influence and through creativity and vision. (8)

Strategic Leadership: The common usage of the term strategic is related to
the concept of strategy, simply a plan of action fro accomplishing a goal.

A strategy is a plan whose aim is to link ends, ways, and means. The
difficult part involves the thinking required to develop the plan based on
uncertain, complex or volatile knowledge information, and data. Strategic
leadership entails making decisions across different cultures, agencies,
agendas, personalities, and desires. It requires the devising of plans that are
feasible, desirable, and acceptable to one's organizations and partners-
whether joint integrating or multi-national. Strategic leadership demands the
ability to make sound reasoned decisions specifically consequential
decisions with grave implications. Since4 the aim of strategy is to link ends,
ways, and means, the aim of strategic leadership is to determine the ends,
choose the best ways, and apply the most effective means. The strategy is
the plan; strategic leadership is to determine the ends, choose the best ways,
and apply the most effective means. The strategy is the plan. Strategic


leadership is the thinking and decision making required to develop and effect
the plan. Skills for leading at the strategic level are more complex than those
for leading at the operational levels, with skills for leading at the strategic

Strategic leaders when considering the international environment should first
explore the context specifically the history, culture, religion, geography,
politics, and foreign security. Who are our allies? Do we have any alliances
in place, or do we need to build consensus. What resources are involved? (9)

There are components that make-up the strategic environment:

Nature of Strategic Environment:
The strategic leadership environment differs from the climate at lower levels
of leadership. We should view the nature of this both broadly examining
consequential decisions and changes in performance requirements.

Consequential Decisions:
By nature, strategic leadership requires heavy decision making. All decisions
have consequences. but in the strategic context they take on a different
character specifically they are aimed for the long term. (10)


The First Ladies' Character - A case study on Presidential Spouses

Why concern ourselves with the character of first ladies? It should be
remembered that spouses of presidents have fulfilled a variety of important
and politically significant roles including: Chairing presidential task force;
testifying before congress; championing critical issues; supervising historic
restorations of the White House; participating as key players in presidential
campaigns; and most have served as a trusted political confidante to the

The First lady has emerged as a powerful institution in the White House,
owe complete with an office, staff and financial resources. The size
prominence, and scope of functions associated with her office often surpass
that of even the president's most senior aides. Moreover, her character might
manifest itself in ways not easily measurable or typically considered by
scholars. For instance, it is hard to assess the extent of her influence behind
the scenes as the wife of the president. But, it cannot be denied that the
spousal relationship has the potential to impact presidential decision making
in a way much more profound than the influence wielded by even the most
senior White House Advisor.

The First Lady brings to the study of professional decision making a level of
access and influence beyond that of any staffer or cabinet member and her
understanding of not only the president's deepest personal character traits
but of his political agenda, ideology, and career is second to none. Research
on the first ladyship has chronicled the social and political influence she


wields within and beyond the White House and has made a case for the
study of the office. (11) Indeed, it would seem incumbent upon presidential
scholars to consider the character of the person closet to the president.

In spite of a history of contributions to the presidency, serious scholarship on
the first ladies is a relatively recent phenomenon. Prior to the 1980's most
discussion of the first ladies was social in nature, focusing on such matters
as her marriage and choice of inaugural gown. Little serious consideration of
the spouse of the president existed and the first lady was largely ignored in
mainstream scholarship.(12) By the late eighties, however, scholars began to
approach the topic in a more systematic and serious manner. Books by Myra
Gatin (1990 & 1991) ushered in a new way of looking at first ladies. The
dawn of a new century finds scholarship on first ladies slowly gaining
acceptance as a sub-field of presidential studies. (13)

Abraham Lincoln suggested that the president "appeals to the better angels
within us" and Franklin D. Roosevelt saw his office as a place of moral

As has so often been stated, even the presidents see the office as an
institution suited for moral leadership and one that assumes the character of
the individual occupying the oval office.

President's character remains a key issue in presidential campaigns,
especially in 1992, 1996, and 2000 campaigns. Scholars have followed suit,
devoting attention to presidential character with a flurry of books published
on the topic. The fall 1998 issue of the presidential studies quarterly


highlighted this trend in a special issue on "The Clinton Presidency in
Crisis." With several articles focused on the president's character. (14)

Two advocates of the study of presidential character and their wives George
and George (15) feel it is important to consider character because of its
impact on policymaking and political outcomes, and state that a broad
criterion is needed in assessing character. But they caution that identifying,
developing and applying this broad criterion are difficult. This is agreed by
Cronian and Genovese, who maintain that the relationship of character to a
president's performance as well as the character of their wives remains

Assumptions have been made attempting to define and assess character.
Betty Glad maintains that there are especially two differing perspectives on
the matter. The one approach, as Stephen Carter suggests, the candidate
examining his or her moral virtue, making it known to the public, and acting
on it in a consistent and integrated manner. On the other hand, Reinhold
Niehbur argues that virtues vary according to the realm in which one finds
oneself. Such an approach accepts, for instance that there is a difference
between public and private virtues.

So how is character defined and how measurable is the character of the first
lady in relation to the president his performance and overall success? History
will be the judge.



Careers unfold in wonderful and unanticipated ways allowing our gifts to be
well used. But there is a condition that I have found along with many other
noted executives: the flow is smooth only when we focus on service to
others and forget ambition.

The inner joy associated with creative work is said to be where true
motivation lies. Self interest and moving ahead for financial gain can never
bring true joy.

Truly important contributions do not come from ambition or over-reaching.
Instead, they flow from "gentle callings" to service that arrived

Preparing is always necessary but the important stream of teaching and
every leadership action that matters has to come by way of invitation.

The leadership models and theories that I have presented in this paper reflect
both the inner and outer sides of true leadership.

It is my utmost belief that leaders lead from who they are. Character counts
and will ultimately shape the followers direction of the business.

Many say that leadership can be learned. I disagree. You need to be born
with it. Distinctly in studies it has been proven that leaders immerges even in
the toddler stage. Early in life, it is not difficult to observe toddlers as they
play. The observations usually show the dominate leaders as more assertive
in this playgroup.

Reflecting on true leadership studies one cannot recommend one or two
models that are proven the best. Leadership is personal, unique and
subjective to each individual.

Most would commend leaders who take a stand and are not willing to
compromise their convictions. This unique quality is most admirals with the
political realm. As it is commonly practiced, politics and politicians conceal
their hidden agendas and compromise on a regular basis. How refreshing
when a political leader stands for the common good and does the right thing
even it costs him or her.

Whatever platform of leadership you are in it is proven that character counts.
That is the result of this study. Mostly from the inside out approach as
Steven Covey, author of the First Things First advocates.



Owne Jacobs, Strategic Leadership: The Comparative Edge (Fort
Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.: Industrial College of the
Armed Forces, 2000, 24
Noel M. Tichy with Eli Cohen, The Leadership Engine: How
Winning Companies Build at Every Level (New York: Harper
Business, 1997, 3.
Edgar E Puryear Jr., American Genaearlship: Character Is
Everything: The Art of Command, Novato, Calif: Presidio Press.
2000, 232
Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed
(San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, 1992). 230, 241-42
Allen, K. E., SC Cherry, C. (2000). Systemic Leadership. Lanham
MD: University Press America
Bass, BM. (1990). Bass & Stogdills handbook of leadership (3rd
ed.) New York: Free Press
Baxter Magolda M>B. (2001) Making their Own Way: Narratives
for transforming higher education to promote self-development.
Sterling, VA: Stylus
Dennis W. (1989). On Becoming a Leader. Reading MA: Addison-
Allen K. Steizer, S.P> (1998) The Ecology of Leadership:
Adapting to the challenges of a changing world. The journal of
leadership studies.


10. Gil Troy, Affairs of State: The Rise and Rejection of the
Presidential Couple since World War 11. (New York: Free Press
11. Lewis Gould " Modern First Ladies and the Presidency,
Presidentail Studies Quarterly 20 (1990): 677-683
12. James David Barber, The Presidential Character: Predicting
Performance in the White House (Englewood Clifs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1972 editions in 1977.
13. Presidential Studies Quarterly (Vol29, No 3, 1998) devoted a
special issue to the impeachment of President Bill Clinton.
14. Thomas Cronin " President and Character Questions," Presidential
Studies Quarterly 28 (1998)
15. Alexander I. George , Presidential Personalities and performance.
(Boulder< CO Westview Press, 1998)

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